PEPP - AFRICAN SIGILLATAS

By J. Theodore Peña

[Document created: 3/22/17.  Document last modified: 6/26/17]

 

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. African Sigillata 1

3. African Sigillata 2

4. African Sigillata 3

5. African Sigillata 4

6. African Sigillata 5

7. African Sigillata 6

8. African Sigillata 7

9. African Sigillata 8

10. List of Sources Cited

 

 

 

Introduction

This class page presents the basic information for the several classes African Sigillata (aka African Red-Slip Ware or ARS) represented in the Palatine East pottery assemblage.  It is supplemented and complemented by presentations of information relevant to these classes in several of the PEPP databases, including PEPP Class, PEPP Form, PEPP Specimen, PEPP Fabric, PEPP Pottery Group, and PEPP Petrographic Analysis.

African Sigillata is a family of gloss-slipped tablewares manufactured for the most part in Tunisia (with some minor productions in Algeria and perhaps also Libya) from the first to the seventh century CE.  A total of eight different classes (and several additional sub-classes) of this material are represented at the Palatine East.  These are classified using a scheme developed specifically for PEPP that is based on - though departs in significant ways from - the scheme generally employed in the literature.  The Palatine East scheme relates to this other scheme as follows:

African Sigillata 1 = ARS A

African Sigillata 2 = ARS A/D

African Sigillata 3 = ARS C

African Sigillata 4 = ARS C/E

African Sigillata 5 = ARS D

African Sigillata 6: = ARS E

African Sigillata 7 = not recognized

African Sigillata 8 = not recognized

For a description of the methods employed for the characterization and the quantification of this material for presentation both in this document and in the databases just listed, see the page PEPP Methods.

The African Sigillatas represent the first component of the Palatine East pottery assemblage to be presented on line, and this documentation constitutes what is, in effect, a pilot project for the on-line presentation of the Palatine East material.  The presentation of the eight classes of African Sigillata is commencing with two of the smaller sets of material – the African Sigillata 2 and the African Sigillata 4.  This will be followed by the presentation of the African Sigillata 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in this order.  The insights gained from the presentation of these first two classes will be brought to bear on the presentation of the substantially larger and, in some regards (e.g., the extensive attestation of decoration in the form of appliques and stamping), more complex sets of materials that comprise the African Sigillata 1, 3, and 5.  Towards this end, users of RES ROMANAE are invited to contact the author with their comments regarding the presentation of these two groups and how this might be modified with a view to improvement.

 

2. African Sigillata 1

2.1 Class Overview

The Palatine East assemblage includes 1049 fragments belonging to African Sigillata 1 that weigh a total of 8019 grams and derive from at least 292 vessels.  These materials were assigned to 21 forms and 29 form variants and to four fabric variants.

This class, which has elsewhere been termed terra sigillata chiara A, sigillata africana A , African Sigillata A, and African Red Slip (ARS) A, consists of a wide array of forms, chiefly bowls and dishes, but also thin-walled beakers and a variety of closed forms.  These have a fine, gritty, or coarse light red or red body that to the naked eye displays either no visible inclusions or rare calcareous bodies.  Vessels belonging to this class usually have a light red to red slip on all surfaces in the case of open forms and the exterior surface only in the case of closed forms.  This is generally identical to or just slightly darker in color than the ceramic body with a luster that ranges from highly glossy to matte.

African Sigillata 1 was first recognized by Lamboglia, who termed it sigillata chiara A.  In Atlante I Carandini and Tortorella divided this grouping, which they termed sigillata africana A, into three subclasses based on distinctions noted by Hayes.  These consisted of a chronologically early grouping, termed sigillata africana A1, which displayed a smooth surface covered with a glossy slip – a late grouping, termed sigillata africana A2, which displayed a rough surface covered with a thin, matte slip, and an intermediate or transitional grouping termed sigillata africana A1/2.  This classificatory scheme has continued to be employed by most scholars through to the present.

No production sites have been identified to date for African Sigillata 1 and its point of origin remains the subject of discussion.  Both Hayes and Carandini and Tortorella in Atlante I concluded on the basis of its distribution and general similarity in appearance to African Sigillata 5 that this class originated somewhere in northern Tunisia, perhaps in the Carthage region, and this conjecture has been widely accepted.  Bonifay has argued that one group of African Sigillata A1/2 vessels with applique decoration may have been manufactured at Oudhna, in northern Tunisia, noting the similarity of its fabric to that of the African Sigillata 5 vessels manufactured at this center in the fifth and sixth century CE.  He has also argued that another group of vessels assigned to this class that display a distinctive fine fabric close to that of African Sigillata 3 may have been manufactured in central Tunisia.  Most recently, Ben Moussa has reviewed the evidence and argued on historical and geographical grounds (though not any direct archaeological or compositional evidence) that the earliest workshop (or workshops?) that produced African Sigillata 1 were likely located in an area of northern Tunisia bounded by Simitthus in the west, Neapolis in the east, Thuburbo Maius in the north, and Mactaris in the south.  Within this extensive territory he regards the area between Simitthus and Bulla Regia in the upper Bagradas Valley, the area around Uchi Maius, Thougga, and Mapplia, in the middle Bagradas Valley, and the area between Thuburbo Minus and Thimmida, spanning the area from the lower Bagradas Vallley to the lower valley of the Oued Meliane in the immediate hinterland of Carthage as the most likely locations for this workshop/these workshops.

Schuring carried out an extensive program of compositional and physical analysis of 111 specimens of African sigillata (including examples of African Sigillata 1, 2, 3, and 5) and 83 specimens of African cookware recovered from the excavations at San Sisto Vecchio, in Rome that included 23 specimens of African Sigillata 1.  This program of analysis, to which reference will be made throughout this document, involved the evaluation of the texture and mineralogical composition of the ceramic body of all specimens by naked eye and under a binocular microscope; the characterization of ceramic body texture and mineralogical composition for a subset of 27 specimens by means of petrographic analysis; the analysis of bulk ceramic body chemical composition for the same subset of 27 specimens by means of bulk analytical methods and of 39 specimens by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA); the analysis of ceramic body matrix chemical composition for a subset of 20 specimens and of slip chemical composition for 14 specimens by means of electron microprobe; and the determination of ceramic body apparent porosity for 192 specimens.

The 23 specimens of African Sigillata 1 included in Schuring’s program of analysis included 6 that she identified as African Sigillata A1 or A1/2, 1 as African Sigillata A1/2 or A2, and 16 as African Sigillata A2.  Of these specimens, 5 were subjected to both bulk chemical analysis and neutron activation analysis, of which 4 were also subjected to petrographic analysis.  It is not clear how many of the specimens, if any, were subjected to electron microprobe analysis, although this could have been no more than 5 (one for each of the fabric groups to which specimens of this class were assigned).  Twenty-two of the specimens were analyzed for apparent porosity.

The results obtained in this program of analysis for the specimens of African Sigillata 1 that are of immediate interest are those that regard ceramic body mineralogy and texture.  On the basis of her evaluation of the materials by naked eye and under the binocular microscope Schuring assigned the 23 specimens to five different fabric groups - her tw3 (tableware group 3) (1 specimen African Sigillata A1 or A1/2, 1 specimen African Sigillata A1/2 or A2, 9 specimens African Sigillata A2), tw4 (5 specimens African Sigillata A2), tw5 (2 specimens African Sigillata A2), tw6 (2 specimens African Sigillata A1 or A1/2), and tw7 (3 specimens African Sigillata A1 or A1/2).  These groupings reflected gross variation in the abundance and sorting of inclusions, chiefly quartz grains, and the abundance and shape of voids.  Fabric groups tw3 and tw4 also included specimens of African Sigillata 2 and 5, while fabric group tw7 also included specimens of African Sigillata 5, and it is clear that these groups do not embody a straightforward one-to-one relationship to specific production groups.  In addition, Schuring acknowledged that the distinctions between the several fabric groups that she recognized were not in some cases clear, indicating, for example, that the differentiation between tw3 and tw4 was to some extent problematic.

Kars, who carried out the program of petrographic analysis subsumed within the project, assigned all four specimens of African Sigillata 1 analyzed by this method (which included one specimen African Sigillata A1 or A1/2 and 3 specimens African Sigillata A2) to a single fabric group, along with 1 specimen of African Sigillata 2, 1 specimen of African Sigillata 5, and 6 specimens of African cookware.   The inclusions present in these specimens – chiefly quartz (mostly monocrystalline, though with some polycrystalline grains sometimes present), with trace amounts of plagioclase feldspar and mica - are extremely common and not diagnostic of any specific geographical region.

The results of the program of chemical analysis proved problematic and need not be considered, although it is worth noting that these did demonstrate that with but a small number of exceptions all of the specimens of African Sigillata and African cookware analyzed had been manufactured with a non-carbonate clay and that the slip on the specimens of African Sigillata consisted of a fine fraction of the clay employed to produce the ceramic body.

Mackensen and Schneider subsequently carried out a program of analysis involving the characterization of ceramic body bulk chemistry by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for substantial numbers of specimens of African Sigillata 1, 2, 3, and 5.  The results of this program of analysis will also be referred to throughout this document.  This project included the analysis of 19 specimens of African Sigillata 1 from excavations at Carthage and Ostia, among which were 14 specimens identified as African Sigillata A1, 1 specimen of a distinctive set of vessels decorated with appliques assigned to African Sigillata A1/2, and 4 specimens identified as African Sigillata A2.  All but one of these specimens – one of the examples identified as African Sigillata A2 - formed a coherent group when the resulting compositional data were subjected to cluster analysis.  All but two of the specimens analyzed displayed low values for CaO (assayed as falling between 0.58 and 1.62 percent).  The exceptions were the example of applique-decorated African Sigillata A1/2 and the African Sigllata A2 outlier (an example of the Hayes 27 dish), which displayed slightly higher values for this oxide  – 2.06 and 2.42 percent, respectively.  Mackensen and Schneider concluded that the 18 specimens that constituted a discreet cluster in the dendrogram generated by cluster analysis represented a coherent compositional group, and by comparing the compositional data for these specimens with the data obtained for the specimens of African Sigillata 3 and 4 included in the program of analysis – many of which were recovered at production sites – they inferred that this class probably originated somewhere in northern Tunisia and probably did not originate in central Tunisia.

With regard to the chronology of this class, it has long been clear that the beginning date of its manufacture lies at some point prior to 79 CE, though presumably not a great deal before this (probably no earlier than ca. 60 CE at the very earliest and perhaps as late as ca. 75 CE), as a small number of examples of the earliest forms have been recovered at Pompeii.  Its ending date has been somewhat more difficult to establish.  Its presence aboard the Cabrera 3 shipwreck indicates that it remained in use at least into the 260s CE.  How much later than this its manufacture may have continued remains an open question.  Lund, in his evaluation of the dates of the various wares and forms encountered in the Segermes Valley Survey in northern Tunisia, allows the ending dates for some of the later forms to fall as late as 350 CE, and it seems likely that production continued at least into the first quarter of the fourth century CE.

Bibliography

Hayes 1972, 18-55, 173-200; Atlante I, 19-52, 141-147; Schuring 1988, 4, 7-8, 13, 14-15, 17-18, 24, 25, 26-39, 40-41, 46, 49-51, 51-52; Lund 1995, 475-485, 541-542; Camilli 1995, 24-25; Bonifay 2004, 45-48; Serrano Ramos 2005, 228-235; Mackensen and Schneider 2006, 168-173, 179, 180; Ben Moussa 2007, 37-42.

 

2.2 Methods

It is necessary to comment on certain aspects of the methods employed to assign the Palatine East African Sigillata 1 to forms or vessel part types, to characterize fabrics, and to quantify this material, as these depart somewhat from standard project methodology.  All rim, base, and handle fragments recovered in contexts deposited prior to ca. 350 CE were assigned to a specific form, base, or handle type according to standard project methodology.  Body fragments from these contexts that could not be assigned to a specific form were assigned to one of three general body type categories (open form, closed form, thin-walled form).  Fragments recovered in contexts deposited ca. 350 CE or later were judged to be so highly residual as to be of limited interest, and were accordingly assigned to a generic rim, base or body type category rather than to a specific form or rim, or base type category.

With regard to the characterization of fabrics, a provisional fabric classification was drawn up by examining the fracture surfaces of specimen chips under the binocular microscope and the assigning of each of these to a provisional fabric group.  This involved the examination of a chip taken from nearly all of the rim fragments recovered in contexts deposited prior to ca. 350 CE and for at least one representative fragment for each base and handle type.  Rim, base, and handle fragments from contexts deposited ca. 350 CE and later were not examined for fabric, except in the case of specimens that were accessioned due to the fact that they were of typological interest.  For all accessioned specimens a photomicrograph of the fracture surface was subsequently produced using the digital microscope according to standard project methodology.  Eight of the accessioned specimens – including at least one specimen from each of the provisional fabric groups recognized - were thin sectioned and the resulting sections subjected to petrographic analysis.  This documentation was then reviewed and the provisional fabric classification revised to obtain a final classification, with various adjustments made for specific specimens to the extent that this was possible, given the fact that fabric photomicrographs were available for only a minority of the fragments.  (This involved the collapsing of working fabric groups 151, 152, and 153 into Variant1 and 147 and 149 into Variant 3, with 150 equal to Variant 2 and 148 equal to Variant 4.)  As a consequence of this set of procedures, most of the rim fragments were assigned to a fabric variant, while the vast majority of base fragments were not characterized for fabric.

The materials recovered in contexts deposited prior to ca. 350 CE were quantified according to standard project methodology.  Those from contexts deposited ca. 350 CE and later were counted and weighed by the generic rim, base, handle, or body sherd vessel part types to which they were assigned, but not quantified by either EVREP or EVE.

 

2.3 Forms, Form Variants and Vessel Part Types Represented

The specimens of African Sigillata 1 in the Palatine East assemblage were assigned to 21 forms that subsumed 29 form variants.  In addition, materials were assigned to 1 rim type, 7 base types, 2 handle types, and 4 body types.  As appropriate, forms are referred to by the form number indicated in Hayes 1972, supplemented where this was possible with the type number employed in Bonifay 2005.  In a few cases the number employed is the Atlante I figure number.

The various forms, form variants, and vessel part types recognized are as follows:

Form 1 Variant 1: Hayes 3B dish

Form 1 Variant 2: Hayes 3C dish

Form 2: Hayes 5C dish

Form 3: Hayes 6A and 6B dish

Form 4: Hayes 7B bowl

Form 5 Variant 1: Hayes 8A bowl

Form 5 Variant 2: Hayes 8B bowl

Form 6 Variant 1: Hayes 9A bowl

Form 6 Variant 2: Hayes 9B bowl

Form 7: Hayes 10A bowl

Form 8 Variant 1: Hayes 14A and 14B bowl

Form 8 Variant 2: Hayes 14A and 14B bowl (beveled rim)

Form 8 Variant 3: Hayes 15 bowl

Form 9 Variant 1: Hayes 16 dish

Form 9 Variant 2: Hayes 14C dish

Form 10: Hayes 17 bowl

Form 11 Variant 1: Hayes 27 dish

Form 11 Variant 2: Hayes 27 dish (no groove on interior wall)

Form 12 Variant 1: Hayes 31 large dish

Form 12 Variant 2: Hayes 31 similis dish

Form 13: Hayes 131 or 135 beaker

Form 14: beaker (Hayes 136?)

Form 15: Hayes 20 lid

Form 16: Hayes 160 bottle

Form 17: closed form (Atlante I XXII.5 jar?)

Form 18: closed form (pitcher?)

Form 19: Hayes 161 n. 2 jug

Form 20: closed from with steep, straight middle wall and angle to lower wall (jug?)

Form 21: Hayes 147 canteen

 

Rim 1: generic rim

 

Base 1: small ring-footed base open form

Base 2: medium/large ring-footed base open form

Base 3: small disk base closed form

Base 4: small flat base closed form

Base 5: medium disk base closed form

Base 6: generic base

 

Handle 1: strap handle from closed form

Handle 2: strap handle from closed form

 

Body 1: open form

Body 2: closed form

Body 3: thin-walled form

Body 4: generic body

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (1)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (2)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (3)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (4)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (5)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (6)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Forms/Profile Drawings (7)

 

For most forms and form variants the dates of manufacture that have been adopted are those indicated in Lund’s 1995 review of the dating of African Sigillata forms, with date ranges that run beyond 310 CE truncated at that date as what is currently the best estimate for the latest date at which this class was manufactured.  In cases in which Bonifay’s 2005 review of the typology of African Sigillata offers what was deemed to be a more reliable date range this has been adopted.  In the small number of cases in which neither of these works offers a usable date range, the date range indicated in Hayes 1972 or Atlante I was adopted, with preference generally given to the latter work when the two are in disagreement.  As the method for determining the depositional status of pottery groups requires numerical values for the dates of manufacture, date ranges given in non-numeric terms have been translated into what are judged to be the best numeric equivalent (e.g., “end of first to beginning of second century CE” = 60/70-110/120 CE).  For a limited number of uncommon forms the extant literature did not provide any useful figures for dates of manufacture.

 

2.4 Fabrics

The evaluation of fabric revealed the presence of considerable heterogeneity in terms of sorting and texture, if not type of inclusions.  All specimens displayed a non-carbonate matrix characterized by a more or less abundant presence of quartz grains of varied dimensions and degrees of angularity (in some cases including rare polycrystalline grains), rare argillaceous bodies (here termed claystone), and in some specimens rare calcareous bodies when evaluated in thin section.  No plagioclase feldspar or mica were observed.  The materials for which fabric was characterized by means of binocular microscope were assigned to four different groups on the basis of texture.  As the boundaries between these groups and their relationship to each other were somewhat unclear and, as discussed below, the groups may represent vessels manufactured with clay obtained from a single source, it was decided to represent these as four variants of a single fabric – identified as African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1, 2, 3, and 4.  These can be briefly characterized as follows:

African Sigillata Fabric Variant 1: gritty to coarse texture.

African Sigillata Fabric Variant 2: porphyritic texture.

African Sigillata Fabric Variant 3: porphyritic to fine texture.

African Sigillata Fabric Variant 4: fine texture.

 

2.4.1 African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1

Description

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with an irregular or highly irregular fracture surface and gritty to coarse texture, displaying absent or rare medium or large white bodies.  Light red, light red/red, or red (most commonly 10R-2.5YR 5-6/6-8) with matte, slightly glossy, or glossy light red, light red/red, or red slip.

Microscope:  Gritty to coarse texture with discontinuous non-carbonate matrix; frequent minute to medium and rarely large, subangular to rounded colorless grains, rarely displaying cracks (quartz; polycrystalline quartz); absent to rare, small to medium, rounded reddish to dark gray bodies (claystone); absent to rare small, round white bodies (calcium carbonate), and absent to rare, small, rounded and irregular voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 1 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (1)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 1 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (2)

 

Petrographic Analysis

N = 2

PEPP 4917 Thin Section 213 20X

PEPP 4917 Thin Section 213 40X

PEPP 6980 Thin Section 215 20X

PEPP 6980 Thin Section 215 40X

 

Forms, Form Variants, and Vessel Part Types Represented

Form 2: Hayes 5C dish

Form 3: Hayes 6A and 6B dish

Form 5 Variant 1: Hayes 8A bowl

Form 5 Variant 2: Hayes 8B bowl

Form 6 Variant 1: Hayes 9A bowl

Form 7: Hayes 10A bowl

Form 8 Variant 1: Hayes 14A and 14B bowl

Form 8 Variant 2: Hayes 14A and 14B (beveled rim) bowl

Form 8 Variant 3: Hayes 15 bowl

Form 9 Variant 1: Hayes 16 dish

Form 9 Variant 2: Hayes 14C dish

Form 10: Hayes 17 bowl

Form 11 Variant 1: Hayes 27 dish

Form 12 Variant 1: Hayes 31 large dish

Form 13: Hayes 131 or 135 beaker

Form 15: Hayes 20 lid

Form 17: closed form (Atlante I XXII.5 jar?)

Form 20: closed from with steep, straight middle wall and angle to lower wall (jug?)

Base 2: medium/large ring-footed base open form

Base 3: small disk base closed form

Handle 1: strap handle from closed form

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 99 fragments/91 vessels/471 EVE

Bases: 3 fragments/3 vessels/019 EVE

 

2.4.2 African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2

Description

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with slightly irregular to irregular fracture surface and gritty or porphyritic texture, displaying absent to rare medium to large white bodies and absent to rare medium to large colorless grains.  Light red, light red/red, or red (most commonly 10R 5-6/6-8) with matte, slightly glossy, glossy, or highly glossy light red, light red/red, or red slip.

Microscope:  Porphyritic texture with continuous non-carbonate matrix; abundant small to medium and rarely large, angular to subrounded colorless grains, rarely displaying cracks (quartz; polycrystalline quartz); absent to rare, medium and rarely large, rounded reddish to dark gray bodies (claystone); absent to rare small to medium, round reaction rims and white bodies (calcium carbonate); absent to rare, small, rounded and irregular voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 2 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (1)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 2 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (2)

 

Petrographic Analysis

N = 1

PEPP 6978 Thin Section 211 20X

PEPP 6978 Thin Section 211 40X

 

 

Forms, Form Variants, and Vessel Part Types Represented

Form 1 Variant 2: Hayes 3C dish

Form 2: Hayes 5C dish

Form 4: Hayes 7B bowl

Form 5 Variant 1: Hayes 8A bowl

Form 5 Variant 2: Hayes 8B bowl

Form 6 Variant 1: Hayes 9A bowl

Form 6 Variant 2: Hayes 9B bowl

Form 7: Hayes 10A bowl

Form 8 Variant 1: Hayes 14A and 14B bowl

Form 8 Variant 2: Hayes 14A and 14B (beveled rim) bowl

Form 9 Variant 1: Hayes 16 dish

Form 9 Variant 2: Hayes 14C dish

Form 10: Hayes 17 bowl

Form 11 Variant 1: Hayes 27 dish

Form 11 Variant 2: Hayes 27 (without groove on interior wall) dish

Form 12 Variant 1: Hayes 31 large dish

Form 12 Variant 2: Hayes 31 similis dish

Form 13: Hayes 131 or 135 beaker

Form 15: Hayes 20 lid

Form 21: Hayes 147 canteen

Base 1: small ring-footed base open form

Base 4: small flat base closed form

Handle 2: handle closed form. 

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 116 fragments/106 vessels/638.5 EVE

Bases: 6 fragments/3 vessels/119 EVE

 

2.4.3 African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3

Description

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with a smooth or conchoidal fracture surface and fine texture, displaying absent to rare small white bodies.  Light red/red or light red (most commonly 10R 5.5-6/8) with red or light red/red glossy slip.

Microscope:  Fine to porphyritic, continuous, well fused matrix; rare to sparse minute to small, angular to subrounded colorless grains (quartz); absent to rare, small, rounded reddish bodies (claystone); absent to rare small, round reaction rims and white bodies (calcium carbonate); rare, small, rounded and irregular voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 3 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (1)

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 3 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs (2)

 

Petrographic Analysis

N = 2

PEPP 4921 Thin Section 208 20X

PEPP 4921 Thin Section 208 40X

PEPP 5207 Thin Section 210 20X

PEPP 5207 Thin Section 210 40X

 

 

Forms, Form Variants, and Vessel Part Types Represented

Form 1 Variant 1: Hayes 3B dish

Form 1 Variant 2: Hayes 3C dish

Form 3: Hayes 6A and 6B dish

Form 5 Variant 1: Hayes 8A bowl

Form 5 Variant 2: Hayes 8B bowl

Form 6 Variant 1: Hayes 9A bowl

Form 9 Variant 1: Hayes 16 dish

Form 9 Variant 2: Hayes 14C dish

Form 12 Variant 1: Hayes 31 large dish

Form 14: beaker (Hayes 136?)

Form 16: Hayes 160 bottle

Form 18: closed form (pitcher?)

Form 19: Hayes 161 n. 2 jug

Base 3: small disk base thin-walled closed form

Base 5: medium disk base closed form

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 35 fragments/35 vessels/170.5 EVE

Bases: 6 fragments/5 vessels/143 EVE

 

2.4.4 African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 4

Description

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with smooth fracture surface and fine texture, displaying absent to rare small to medium white bodies.  Red, light red/red, and red (most commonly 10R-1YR-2.5YR 5-6/6-8) with glossy red, light red/red or red slip.

Microscope:  Fine to gritty texture with discontinuous, non-carbonate matrix; frequent minute colorless grains (quartz); absent to rare, minute reddish bodies (claystone); absent to rare small rounded white bodies (calcium carbonate); rare to sparse small rounded and irregular voids

Montage of African Sigillata 1 Variant 4 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Petrographic Analysis

N = 0

 

Forms, Form Variants, and Vessel Part Types Represented

Form 1 Variant 2: Hayes 3C dish

Form 3: Hayes 6A and 6B dish

Form 5 Variant 1: Hayes 8A bowl

Form 5 Variant 2: Hayes 8B bowl

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 8 fragments/8 vessels/025 EVE

 

2.4.5 Interpretation of Fabric Evidence

Schuring was of the view that the inclusions present in the various fabric groups of African Sigillata and African cookware that she identified were very likely natural components of the clay employed to produce the ceramic pastes from which the vessels in question were manufactured rather than temper (i.e., deliberately added aplastic material).  She further inferred that variability in the inclusion component of the ceramic bodies that she evaluated in many cases resulted from the fractioning of the clay with a view to removing the coarse natural inclusions, with this most likely accomplished by means of water separation (levigation) rather than by either picking these inclusions out by hand or sieving.

This interpretation of the evidence seems sound, and the characteristics of and distinctions between the four fabric variants identified among the African Sigillata 1 from the Palatine East can best be accounted for on the basis of this set of understandings.  (Worth noting in this regard, however, is the fact that Kars was of the view that the fabric group to which he assigned the four specimens of African Sigillata A that he analyzed in thin section displayed a bimodal distribution of quartz grains that he believed pointed towards the presence of a quartz sand temper component.)  Specifically, the sets of specimens assigned to Variants 2 and 3 seem to grade into one another, with both groups characterized by a relatively scarce component of quartz micrograins (i.e., grains in the silt and very fine sand ranges - ca. 100 microns or less) and the latter by a distinctly less abundant, though varying presence of quartz grains in the medium sand range and larger (i.e., ca. 200-500 microns and above).  In light of these observations it is easy to envisage the set of specimens assigned to Variant 3 as consisting of vessels manufactured with a paste obtained by the more or less thorough fractioning of the clay employed for the production of the paste with which the specimens assigned to Variant 2 were manufactured.  The sets of specimens assigned to Variants 1 and 4, on the other hand, appear to have a relatively greater concentration of quartz micrograins, with the latter group essentially free of inclusions in the medium sand range.  It may thus be that the specimens assigned to Variant 4 were produced with a paste obtained by the thorough fractioning of the clay employed to make the paste utilized for the manufacture of the specimens assigned to Variant 1.  The entire set of specimens may thus have been manufactured using two different clays – one employed for Variants 1 and 4 displaying a relatively limited presence of quartz micrograins, the other for Variants 2 and 3 displaying a relatively more abundant presence of quartz micrograins.  While this may point to the use of clays from at least two different sources, and, perhaps following from this, the production of this class in at least two different locations by at least two different workshops, it cannot be excluded that distinctions of the kind attested represent natural variability within multiple beds of clay exposed at a single clay source.  On account of this possibility and the difficulties encountered in assigning specimens to one or another of the fabric classes with confidence it was decided to present these classes as variants of a single fabric and to forgo subdividing African Sigillata 1 into two or more sub-classes.

There is a strong, if not perfect correlation between the fabric variants recognized and the chronology of the manufacture of the forms represented in the site assemblage.  Variant 3 is almost exclusively attested with forms that have a beginning date that falls during the period ca. 60-100/110 CE.  While Variant 4 is too uncommon to display what can be considered a robust pattern of association, the available evidence conforms to the pattern displayed by Variant 3.  Forms that have a beginning date that falls after ca. 140/150 CE, on the other hand, are almost exclusively attested with Variants 1 and 2.  Forms that have a beginning date before ca. 110 CE and an end date later than ca. 160 CE are generally attested in Variants 1, 2, and 3.   It would thus appear that at some point between ca. 100/110 and 140/150 CE the workshop or workshops that produced this class largely abandoned the practice of fractioning the clay that they employed in the manufacturing process.

There is a small number of specimens of forms that have a beginning date of 140/150 CE or later in Variants 3 and 4, and it is uncertain whether these represent erroneous fabric identifications or evidence that the workshop/workshops in question sometimes fractioned the clay that they used after this date.  There are also three clear instances of vessels manufactured before 100/110 CE with a paste made from unfractioned clay – PEPP 4962, an example of the Form 14 possible Hayes 136 beaker in Variant 1, PEPP 5070, an example of the Form 15 Hayes 20 lid in Variant 2, and PEPP 4829, an example of the Form 20 closed vessel in Variant 1.  In latter two instances a coarser paste may have proven advantageous given the form in question.   In the first of these, it seems possible that examples of the Form 15 lid were regularly employed for cooking operations - as the presence of sooting on PEPP 5070 indicates was, in fact, the case with this vessel – for which a coarser fabric would have provided enhanced resistance to vessel failure resulting from thermal stress and thermal shock.  In the second, the Form 20 closed vessel has a relatively thick wall, and a coarser, more open paste would have permitted more rapid and even evaporation of water during the drying phase of manufacture.

During the second century CE there were also significant changes in the methods employed to decorate and fire African Sigillata 1.  With regard to decoration, at some point after ca. 140/150 CE the workshop/workshops that manufactured this class began to produce variants of several bowl and dish forms decorated with chattering that did not bear decoration of this kind.  Of the forms attested in the Palatine East assemblage, Form 5 Variants 1 and 2 Hayes Form Hayes 8A and 8B bowls and Form 6 Variants 1 and 2 Hayes Form 9A and 9B bowls are instances of this development.  The original variants that bore chattering continued to be produced at least through ca. 160 CE and perhaps into the third century CE.  This development may have occurred at the same time as the abandonment of the practice of fractioning the clay employed to manufacture these vessels or perhaps somewhat later than this.  Regardless of the timing, the two developments may have been linked, as a finer paste lends itself more readily to the execution of chattering, which is somewhat difficult to execute with a satisfactory result in a green vessel manufactured with a gritty paste. The fact that the form variants decorated with chattering continued to be manufactured in Variants 1 and 2, however, underscores the fact that the change in paste preparation practices was the independent variable, with potters less inclined to decorate vessels with chattering the incidence of chattering after the abandonment of the fractioning of clay.

With regard to firing, at some difficult to define point during the second half of the second century CE – most likely its final quarter – there was a distinct decline in the luster of the slip on examples of this class.  In the Palatine East assemblage, this was expressed in the form of the appearance of vessels bearing slip that was characterized as slightly glossy or matte, rather than highly glossy or glossy, as had been the case with vessels manufactured before this period.  Some forms with beginning dates that may fall as late as ca. 180 or 200 CE, such as the From 11 Hayes 27 dish and Form 12 Hayes 31 large dish, are in nearly every case attested with this less lustrous slip, and it seems likely that by the end of the second or the beginning of the third century CE vessels were no longer being manufactured on a regular basis with a glossy slip.  This development probably reflects a change in firing regimen, with vessels in the earlier period exposed to lengthy firings at a relatively high temperature that promoted the more extensive sintering of the slip, and those in the later period exposed to lower maximum temperatures and/or to shorter periods of firing at high temperature, resulting in a less glossy slip.

These changes in practices of paste preparation, decoration, and firing that occurred over some larger or smaller portion of the third century CE indicate a decline in the investments made in the manufacture of this class of pottery in terms of both labor and raw materials (fuel).  Along with this there must have been a lowering in the level of esthetic expectations for vessels belonging to this class on the part of those who produced them and those who consumed them.  The most significant of these three developments in terms of cost savings was very probably the first of them to be instituted, namely the abandonment of the fractioning of clay.  While the reasons for the adoption of this change remain unknown, we may speculate that the decision to abandon this practice was untaken in connection with a need to increase output, with this perhaps associated with an expansion of the market for this production, perhaps brought about by the institution of new arrangements for the distribution of this class beyond northern Tunisia.  The last of these changes – the adoption of a firing regimen that produced only a slightly glossy or matte slip - may have been a response to the emergence of central Tunisian African Sigillata 3 as a competitor for the high-end tableware market both in Tunisia and beyond, as this other class tends to have a matte slip.  As discussed below in the section concerned with forming techniques, changes in the repertoire of forms and the forming methods employed to produce these also point to connections between African Sigillata 1 and African Sigillata 3 by the beginning of the third century CE.

Given the evidence just discussed, it seems clear that the vessels manufactured in Variants 3 and 4 and with a glossy slip correspond with Atlante I’s sigillata africana A1 production and those manufactured in Variants 1 and 2 with a slightly glossy or matte slip with its sigillata africana A2 production.  Vessels manufactured in Variants 1 and 2 with a glossy or slightly glossy slip may perhaps correspond to its sigillata africana A1/2 production.  It also seems likely that Variants 1 and 2 correspond to Schuring’s tw3, tw4, and perhaps also tw7 fabric groups, with the gritty to coarse Variant 1 a reasonably close match with tw4 and perhaps also tw7, and the porphyritic Variant 2 a reasonably close match with tw3.  Schuring appears to have analyzed few, if any examples of African Sigillata 1 from the period prior to 140/150 CE, so the effort to correlate Variants 3 and 4 with her fabric groups is more problematic.  It appears likely, however, that Variant 4, and perhaps also Variant 3 correspond to her fabric group tw5.  According to Schuring, her fabric group tw6 is high in calcium, and it would not appear to correspond to any of the Palatine East variants.  Finally, it cannot be excluded that some of the specimens in Variants 3 and/or 4 belong to the group of relatively fine-bodied vessels – for the most part examples of the Hayes 3B and 8A - from sites in Central Tunisia that Bonifay has suggested were manufactured somewhere in that area.  Particularly worth noting in this regard is PEPP 5207, an example of Form 5 Variant 1 (Hayes 8A) with a notably fine fabric.

 

2.5 Chronology

With regard to the chronology of African Sigillata 1, the presence of large numbers of fragments belonging to the later forms in the sequence attested for this class (Forms 8-12) in contexts deposited during the final three decades of the third century CE or the first two decades of the fourth century CE is a point of some interest, in that it may support the view that the manufacture of this class (and its export to Rome) continued through to at least the end of the third century CE and perhaps into the first quarter of the fourth.  While the paucity of contexts in the site sequence deposited during the second and third quarters of the third century CE renders the interpretation of this evidence problematic, this supposition is supported by the fact that relatively complete (for the Palatine East assemblage) specimens of some of these forms were recovered in context A105, a deposit consisting in large part of materials in primary deposition that was probably formed during the first decade of the fourth century.

 

2.6 Manufacturing Technology

Paste/surfacing preparation

As discussed above, the evidence suggests that the vessels attested in African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 were manufactured with a paste consisting of unfractioned non-carbonate clay and those in African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 with a paste consisting of a more or less fine fraction of this clay, and that those attested in African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 were manufactured with a paste consisting of a different, unfractioned non-carbonate clay and those in African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 4 with a paste consisting of a fine fraction of this clay. 

The sole handle fragment for which the fabric variant was documented (PEPP 6998) displays an unusually coarse example of African Sigillata 1 Variant 2.  As handles often represent the thickest part of a vessel, potters sometimes employ a coarser paste for these elements than for the remainder of the vessel in order to promote uniform drying, and it seems possible that the potters who manufactured this class might have adopted this practice.  This might have involved either selecting particularly coarse consignments of the clay that they employed for this purpose or the adding of temper to this clay.

As noted above, Schuring’s program of electron microprobe analysis of the chemical composition of African Sigillata ceramic bodies and slips indicates that the slips consisted of a fine fraction of the clay employed for the manufacture of the body.  The slip was presumably obtained by pulverizing the clay, dumping it into a basin of water, allowing all except the fine fraction to settle to the bottom, decanting the supernatant into a second basin or a container of some kind, and then allowing this to evaporate until it reached the consistence of a viscous liquid.

Forming

Effectively all of the forms attested for this class were formed by first throwing a blank on the wheel and then remounting this on the wheel in inverted position to finish the base and lower wall by turning.  In the case of some of the smaller forms, such as Forms 13 and 14 - both thin-walled beakers - the blank was probably thrown from the hump.  The amount of turning employed to finish the blank and the specific nature of this is often difficult to discern due to the presence of a fairly thick slip on the exterior surface that obscures the micromorphology.  In general, however, it appears that the forming of this class involved only a modest amount of turning relative to other classes of African Sigillata, with this limited for some or many forms to the shaping of the angle between the middle and lower wall, perhaps some thinning of the lower wall, and the turning out of the center of what was probably the blank’s disk base to form a ring foot.  Many forms were also provided with decoration in the form of grooves and/or chattering on the exterior upper and sometimes also lower wall while mounted on the wheel in inverted position for turning.  A few open forms were subsequently remounted on the wheel in right-side-up position for the execution of grooves or chattering on the interior wall and floor or the application of barbotine decoration to the rim.  Two forms produced during the later second and/or third century CE – Form 11 Variant 1 Hayes 27 dish and Form 12 Variant 1 Hayes 31 large dish - also had their floor compressed prior to decoration when in this position, a practice widely attested for large open forms from the third and fourth centuries in African Sigillata 3, 5, and 6.  The closed forms represented are too fragmentary to allow much to be said about the practices involved in their forming, although it does appear that for the Form 16 Hayes 160 bottle the rim/neck was formed as a separate piece, while for one medium to large closed form represented by Base 6 the ring foot might have been attached as a separate piece rather than by being turned out from the base of the blank.

Decoration

As already noted, some forms manufactured during the earlier period are decorated with one or more rows of chattering on the exterior upper and, less often, lower wall, sometimes executed in association with and on top of one or multiple grooves.  As discussed, the practice of executing chattering declined after ca. 140/150 CE and may have been discontinued as early as ca. 160 CE, a development that was probably linked to the abandonment of the practice of fractioning the clay employed for the manufacture of this class.  Some open forms have one or multiple grooves on upper surface of the everted rim, the interior wall, and/or the floor, and/or one or multiple bands of chattering on the floor.  One form – the Form 1 Variant 1 Hayes 3B bowl - has barbotine decoration on the upper surface of its everted rim.

Surfacing

Open forms were slipped on both surfaces, presumably by being dipped into a container of slip.  Closed forms were slipped on the exterior and only the upper portion of the interior, presumably by having their exterior and then their rim dipped into a container of slip.  The specific method employed yielded an even coating, free of blemishes such as finger marks, dipping lines, pooling, or drips.

Firing

As noted above, vessels manufactured prior to ca. 180/200 CE generally had a glossy slip, whereas those manufactured after this date usually have a slip that is slightly glossy or matte.  This points to a change in firing regimen that occurred during the last quarter of the second century CE, with vessels produced prior to this presumably subjected to a higher soaking temperature that promoted the sintering of the slip, and those produced during this period and later fired at temperatures too low to cause this effect.

 

2.7 Forms, Form Variants and Vessel Part Types

 

2.7.1 African Sigillata 1 Form 1 Variant 1

Hayes 3B/Bonifay Type 2 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with curved flanged rim, convex wall with varying degrees of depth and steepness, and small ring foot.  Groove near tip of rim and barbotine decoration consisting of single leaves and stems on upper surface of rim flange.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.    

Rim diameter: 10-26 cm. (Hayes 1972: 21:  Hayes 3A, B and C: 16-21 cm; small version for Hayes B and C: 10-11 cm; Atlante I, 24: 10-26 cm).

Date of manufacture: ca. 60/80-160/180 CE. (Hayes 1972, 25: ca. 75-150 CE; Atlante I, 24: as Hayes 1972; Lund 1995, 476: ca. 60/80-160/180 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 21-25; Atlante I, 24-25; Lund 1995, 476; Bonifay 2004, 154, 156; Serrano Ramos 2005, 230.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/011.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 17.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4921 (Context D122). 

Fragment preserving portion rim and upper/middle wall.  Groove on upper surface rim flange near tip.  Fragment preserves one element barbotine decoration on upper surface rim flange consisting of leaf and curled stem.

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/6) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/6) slip on all preserved surfaces.

Micromorphology: Exterior: Light facets on wall.  Interior: Facets on upper surface rim flange; striations in slip on wall.

Use alteration: Slight chipping of slip on interior at juncture of upper wall and rim flange.

D. r. na; pr. ht. ca. 2.7.

PEPP 4921 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4921 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 4921 Thin Section 208 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 4921 Thin Section 208 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

1C: Barbotine prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4A2. Base turned] #

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2: Groove cut on upper surface rim flange

4B3: Barbotine applied upper surface rim flange

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 14

* Throwing involved folding clay back on itself to thicken upper wall and then flexing this part out and down to fashion flange.  Exterior wall and upper surface rim flange finished with rib, producing facets.

# Turning involved removal of interior of disk base to fashion ring foot.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.2 African Sigillata 1 Form 1 Variant 2

Hayes 3C/Bonifay Type 2 dish

 

General Information

Dish with curved flanged rim, convex wall with varying degrees of depth and steepness, and small ring foot.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.    

Rim diameter: 10-26 cm. (Hayes 1972: 21:  Hayes 3A, B and C: 16-21 cm; small version for Hayes B and C: 10-11 cm; Atlante I, 24: 10-26 cm).

Date of manufacture: 60/70-180/270 CE. (Hayes 1972, 25: early to mid second century CE [possibly earlier and later]; Atlante I, 24: end of second to third century CE; Lund 1995, 476: ca. 60/70-180/270 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 21-25; Atlante I, 24-25; Lund 1995, 476-477; Bonifay 2004, 154, 156; Serrano Ramos 2005, 230.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 18 fragments/18 vessels/098 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 17-19, 19, 19, 19-20, 19-22, 20-23, 21, 22, 26, 27, 31-32, 32-34.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 2 (9), 3 (3), 4 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4920 (Context B186). 

Fragment preserving portion rim and upper/middle wall. 

Fabric Variant 4.  Light red/red (2.5YR 5.5/6) body with light red/red (2.5YR 5.5/6) slip (color perhaps slightly altered by exposure to fire) on all preserved surfaces, matte on exterior, slightly glossy on interior. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Large, faint facets on wall.  Interior: Tiny facets on upper surface rim flange. 

Use alteration:  Patch of sooting on underside rim flange and exterior wall.

D. r. 27; pr. ht. ca. 3.4.

PEPP 4920 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4920 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Base turned] #

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

* Throwing involved folding clay back on itself to thicken upper wall and then flexing this part out and down to fashion flange and shoulder.  Exterior wall and upper surface rim flange finished with rib, producing facets.  Finished blank presumably had disk base.

# Turning involved removal of interior of disk base to fashion ring foot.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.3 African Sigillata 1 Form 2

Hayes 5C dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rolled rim, straight, steep upper wall, angle to straight, shallow lower wall and ring foot.  One or two grooves on exterior upper wall.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 11-24 cm. (Hayes 1972, 26: normal size: 15-17 cm, small size 11-12 cm; Atlante I, 23: 12-24 cm).

Date of manufacture: 140-170 CE. (Hayes 1972, 29: perhaps mid second century CE; Atlante I, 23: as Hayes 1972; Lund 1995, 478: 140-170 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 26-29; Atlante I, 22-23; Lund 1995, 478; Serrano Ramos 2005, 230.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 4 fragments/3 vessels/022.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 16, 16-18, 23-24.

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (2), 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6977 (Context D165). 

Fragment preserving portion rim and upper wall.  Groove on exterior wall.

Fabric Variant 1.  Red (1YR 5/8) body with slightly glossy, slightly pimply red (1YR 5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Possible broad facets on lower part of upper wall.

D. r. 16-18; pr. ht. 3.3.

PEPP 6977 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6977 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5A. Lower wall (?) [and base] turned #

5B. Groove(s) cut in exterior wall

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 11

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.4 African Sigillata 1 Form 3

Hayes 6A or 6B dish.

 

General Information

Dish with flat flanged rim, convex wall, sometimes with angle dividing upper from lower wall, and ring foot.  Groove on upper surface rim flange near tip and groove near mid-point on interior wall.  Hayes 6A has band of chattering on floor.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 19-22 cm. (Hayes 1972, 29: ca. 19-22 cm, small version 11-12 cm; Atlante I 25: 19-22 cm).  

 

Date of manufacture: 70-230/250 CE (Hayes 1972: Hayes 6A: end of first to early second century CE; Hayes 6B: about mid to end of second century; Atlante I, 25: as Hayes 1972; Lund 1995, 478-479: Hayes 6A: 70-100 CE; Hayes 6B: 80/90-230/250 CE)

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972: 29-31; Atlante I, 25; Lund 1995, 478-479; Serrano Ramos 230-231.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 18 fragments/ 18 vessels/081 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 19, 21, 21-22, 26, 32-34.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (5), 2 (1), 3 (7), 4 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4914 (Context A096). 

Fragment preserving rim, upper wall, and upper portion lower wall. Groove on upper surface rim flange near tip.  Groove on interior at juncture of upper and lower wall.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy, slightly pimply light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology Exterior: Striations on upper wall immediately below rim flange and in inner portion of lower surface of rim flange; one small facet on upper wall immediately above juncture with lower wall and one small facet on lower wall immediately below this juncture.  Interior: Faint gouges on upper surface rim flange; striations on upper wall.

D. r. 21; pr. ht. 3.6.

PEPP 4914 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4914 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Lower wall [and base] turned

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2: Groove cut in upper surface rim flange and groove cut in interior wall

[4B3: Chattering cut in floor] (optional)

5. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12-13

* Throwing probably involved folding clay back on itself to thicken upper wall and then flexing this part out and down to fashion flange.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.5 African Sigillata 1 Form 4

Hayes 7B bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rolled or thickened rim, straight, steep upper wall, rounded bend to straight, shallow lower wall, and ring foot with curved floor.  Groove on exterior upper wall flanked by bands of chattering.  Glossy slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 16-23 cm. (Hayes 1972, 31: 16-23 cm; Atlante I: as Hayes 1972).  

Date of manufacture: 100/110-150/175 CE. (Hayes 1972, 33: early to mid second century CE; Atlante I, 26: first half or all of second century CE; Lund 1995, 479: 170/180-200/230 CE).  Lund’s dating is much later than is supported by the evidence.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 31-33; Atlante I, 25-26; Lund 1995, 479; Serrano Ramos 2005, 231.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 3 fragments/3 vessels/020.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 15, 24-26.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 2 (1), 3 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4919 (Context A105). 

Fragment preserving portion rim and upper wall.  Groove on exterior wall with three bands chattering above and at least two bands chattering below.   

Fabric Variant 2. Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with glossy light red (10R 5.8/8) slip on all preserved surfaces, slightly pimply on interior.

D. r. 15; pr. ht. ca. 3.4.

PEPP 4919 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4919 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

[5A. Base turned]

5B1. Groove(s) cut in exterior upper wall

5B2. Chattering cut in exterior upper wall (and lower wall; optional)

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.6 African Sigillata 1 Form 5 Variant 1

Hayes 8A/Bonifay Type 3 bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rim with rounded tip with projecting angular molding on exterior immediately below, straight, steep upper wall, angular transition to straight shallow, lower wall and ring-footed base.  Bands of chattering on molding on exterior upper wall and angle between upper and lower wall; two grooves on interior upper wall opposite molding.  Glossy slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 12-30 cm. (Hayes, 33: 12.5-23 cm; Atlante I, 26:  ca.12-30 cm [for both Hayes 8A and 8B]).

Date of manufacture: 60/70-160/250 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 33-35; Atlante I, 26-27; Lund 1995, 479-480; Bonifay 2004, 154, 156, Serrano Ramos 2005, 231.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 14 fragments/14 vessels/049.5 EVE.

Bases: 5 fragments/5 vessels/054 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 14/6/5.4.

Rim: 14, 17, 17-18, 19-20, 20, 20-22, 20-24.

Base: 5, 6, 6.

 

Weight

PEPP 5207 preserves roughly one-fifth of vessel and weighs 58 g, indicating that complete example of this size would weigh ca. 300 g.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (3), 2 (2), 3 (9), 4 (1).

 

Specimens

PEPP 5207 (Contexts A173, A180). 

Three joining fragments preserving entire profile except for center of base.  Wall immediately below rim convex rather than with projecting angular molding normal for form.  Five bands chattering on exterior wall on convex zone and four or five bands chattering at transition from upper to lower wall.  Two small grooves on interior upper wall.

Fabric Variant 3. Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with glossy red (10R 5.2/8) slip on all surfaces. (Perhaps example of Central Tunisian production of African Sigillata 1.)

Micromorphology:  Exterior: Gouges near center of area inside ring foot.  Interior: Surface notably smooth, with large facets on lower wall/floor.  Two grooves on interior upper wall, distorted, perhaps when blank set over chuck for turning.

D. r. 14; d. bs: 6; ht. ca. 5.4.

PEPP 5207 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5207 Macro Photograph (1)

PEPP 5207 Macro Photograph (2)

PEPP 5207 Macro Photograph (3)

PEPP 5207 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 5207 Thin Section 210 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 5207 Thin Section 210 Photomicrograph 40X

 

PEPP 4915 (Context A135). 

Fragment preserving small portion rim and upper wall.  Three bands chattering on exterior wall on molding.  Two grooves on interior wall opposite molding.

Fabric Variant 3. Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces.

Use alteration: Slip extensively chipped on outermost part of molding below rim.

D. r. na; pr. ht. 2.2.

PEPP 4915 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4915 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph.

 

PEPP 1232 (Context A009). 

Fragment preserving portion of upper and lower wall.  Two grooves on exterior at transition from upper to lower wall with row of chattering below each.  Partially preserved graffito on exterior lower wall - tree with lower portion missing.  Trunk with at least seven branches on left side and at least five branches on right side. 

Fabric Variant 2. Light red (10R 6/8) body with glossy light red (10R 6/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Small facet at juncture upper and lower wall.  Interior: Faint striations. 

Th. w.:  0.5.

PEPP 1232 Profile Drawing

PEPP 1232 Photograph

PEPP 1232 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Grooves cut on interior upper wall @

4. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

5. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

6. Lower wall and base turned

7. Chattering cut in exterior upper wall (and lower wall; optional)

8. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

* Interior lower wall and floor finished with rib, producing facets.

@ Cutting of grooves may have been related to forming of molding (which was perhaps accomplished using a template).

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.7 African Sigillata 1 Form 5 Variant 2

Hayes 8B/Bonifay Type 3 bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rim with rounded tip and angled molding below on exterior wall, straight, steep upper wall, angled transition to straight, shallow lower wall, and ring-footed base.  Two grooves on interior upper wall opposite molding. Slightly glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 12-30 cm. (Hayes 1972, 33: 19-27 cm; Atlante I, 26: ca. 12-30 cm [for both Hayes 8A and 8B]).

Date of manufacture: 180/200-250/300 CE. (Hayes 1972, 35: second half of second century CE; Atlante I, 26: third century CE; Lund 1995, 480: 180/200-250/300 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 33-35; Atlante I, 26-27; Lund 1995, 480; Bonifay 2004, 154, 156; Serrano Ramos 2005, 231.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 30 fragments/ 29 vessels/145 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 12, 15-17, 16-17, 16-17, 16-17, 16-19, 17, 18, 18-21, 19-20, 20, 20-22.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (13), 2 (11), 3 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4917 (Context A022). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and wall.  Two grooves on interior upper wall opposite molding.

Fabric Variant 1. Red (10R 5/6) body (slightly discolored by soot) with matte red (10R 5/6) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Outer face rim has two bands with compressed surface flanking depressed band with striations; medium facets on wall becoming small at curve immediately above foot.  Interior: Medium facets and/or striations.

Use alteration:  Mottled patches soot on interior and exterior (probably deposited post-breakage).

D. r. 16-17; pr. ht. 3.8.

PEPP 4917 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4917 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 4917 Thin Section 213 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 4917 Thin Section 213 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Grooves cut on interior upper wall @

4. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

5. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

6. Lower wall and base turned

7. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

8. Unslipped green vessel slipped

9. Slipped green vessel dried

10. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 11

* Interior lower wall and floor finished with rib, producing facets.

@ Cutting of grooves may have been related to forming of molding (which was perhaps accomplished using a template).

 

Nature of Use

One example has sooting, although this was probably deposited post-breakage.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.8 African Sigillata 1 Form 6 Variant 1

Hayes 9A bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rounded rim, steep, slightly convex upper wall, rounded or angular transition to shallow, slightly convex lower wall, and ring footed base.  Two grooves on exterior upper wall near rim with bands of chattering between and over these and sometimes one or more bands of chattering at juncture of exterior upper and lower wall.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: Hayes 12-21 cm. (1972, 35: 15-21 cm; Atlante I, 27: 12.3-21 cm [both Hayes 9A and 9B]).

Date of manufacture: 60/80-160/230 CE. (Hayes 1972, ca. 100-160+ CE; Atlante I, 27: as Hayes 1972, attestations in second half of second century CE; Lund 481: 60/80-160/230 CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 35-37; Atlante I, 27; Lund 1995, 480-481; Serrano Ramos 2005, 231-232.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 12 fragments/12 vessels/053 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims:  13, 18-20, 18-20, 20-21, 22-23.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (3), 2 (6), 3 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4912 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving portion rim and upper wall.  Two grooves on exterior wall with four or five bands chattering over grooves and in areas between them.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (10R 6/8) body with glossy, slightly pimply light red (10R 6/8) slip on all preserved surfaces.

D. r. na; pr. ht. 3.6.

PEPP 4912 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4912 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5A. Lower wall (?) and base turned

5B1. Grooves cut in exterior upper wall

5B2. Chattering cut in exterior upper wall (and juncture of upper and lower wall; optional)

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.9 African Sigillata 1 Form 6 Variant 2

Hayes 9B bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rounded rim, steep, slightly convex upper wall, rounded or angular transition to shallow, slightly convex lower wall, and ring foot.  Two grooves on exterior upper wall near rim.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 12-21 cm.  (Hayes, 1972, 35: 13-17 cm; Atlante I, 27: 12.3-21 cm [both Hayes 9A and 9B]).

Date of manufacture: 140/150 – 200/220 CE. (Hayes 1972, 37: second half of second century CE; Atlante I, 27: as Hayes 1972; Lund 1995, 481: 110/120-150/220 CE [date mistaken – beginning date too early).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 35-37; Atlante I, 27; Lund 1995, 481; Serrano Ramos 2005, 231-232.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 16 fragments/14 vessels/EVE 092.5.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 14/5/3.8.

Rims: 13, 14, 14-16, 15, 16, 17-20, 20-23.

Bases: 5.

Height: 3.8.

 

Weight

Example ca. one-third complete (PEPP 6978) weighs 60 g, indicating that complete example of this size would weigh ca. 180 g.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (1), 2 (10).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6978 (Contexts A140, A194). 

Three joining fragments preserving complete profile except for center of base.  Two grooves on exterior wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (2YR 6/8) body with glossy light red (2YR 6/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Medium facets at juncture of upper and lower wall; short drag marks on lower wall near ring foot; gouges on resting surface of foot and area inside foot.

D. r. 14; d. bs. 5; ht. 3.8.

PEPP 6978 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6978 Macro Photographs (1) 

PEPP 6978 Macro Photographs (2)

PEPP 6978 Macro Photographs (3)

PEPP 6978 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 6978 Thin Section 211 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 6978 Thin Section 211 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5A. Lower wall and base turned

5B. Grooves cut in exterior upper wall

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 11

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.10 African Sigillata 1 Form 7

Hayes 10A/Bonifay Type 4 large bowl.

 

General Information

Large bowl with rolled rim with small lip at inner edge, steep, slightly convex upper wall, sharp offset at juncture with lower wall, and shallow, slightly convex lower wall, and ring-footed base.  Interior wall sharply undercut opposite offset on exterior wall.  Chattering on exterior wall on underside of rim roll and lower wall immediately below juncture with upper wall.  Slightly glossy slip on all surfaces covered.

Rim diameter: 22-48 cm. (Hayes 1972, 37, 38: 27.3-48 cm; Atlante I, 30: 22-48 cm).  

Date of manufacture: 90-150 CE. (Hayes 1972, 38: second century [early]; Atlante I, 31: ca. 90-150 CE; Lund 481: 180/200-350/370 CE [for variants of form later than that in question]).

Assumed function: food serving.  Vessel intended to take a lid, thus probably meant for serving of hot food.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 37-38; Atlante I, 30-31; Lund 1995, 481; Bonifay 2004, 154, 156-157; Serrano Ramos 2005, 232.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/005 EVE.

 

Dimensions

No evidence.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (1), 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4911 (Context A124). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall. Slight lip at inner edge of rim.  Two bands of chattering preserved on exterior wall.

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with slightly glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces.

Use alteration: Slip slightly chipped on shoulder at juncture of upper wall and rim flange.

D. r. na; pr. ht. 2.3.

PEPP 4911 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4911 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Undercut cut into interior wall *

4. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

5. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

6. Lower wall and base turned

7. Chattering cut in exterior upper wall (and juncture of upper and lower wall; optional)

8. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

* Undercut perhaps relates to mounting of blank on chuck for turning of exterior.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.11 African Sigillata 1 Form 8 Variant 1

Hayes 14A and 14B/Bonifay Types 5 and 7 bowl (with rim lacking bevel).

 

General Information

Bowl with rounded rim, straight or slightly convex upper wall sloping slightly outward, vertical, or sloping slightly inward, sharp angle at juncture to lower wall, straight to slightly convex lower wall, and ring footed base.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 16-24 cm. (Hayes 1972, 39: ca. 16-20 cm (normal size); Atlante I, 32, 33: 16-22 cm [Hayes 14A], 16.5-24.2 cm [Hayes 14B]).

Date of manufacture: 140/160-250/310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 41: mid second century CE [Hayes 14A], second half of second century CE [ca. 160-200+] [Hayes 14B]; Atlante I, 32, 33: end of second to third century CE [Hayes 14A and 14B]; Lund 1995, 482: 140/160-250/370 CE [Hayes 14A], 230/240-250 [Hayes 14B]; Bonifay 2004: end of second – beginning of third century CE [Hayes 14A]; third century [first half?] [Hayes 14B]).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 39-41; Atlante I, 32, 33; Lund 1995, 482; Bonifay 2004, 157-159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 233.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 20 fragments/ 20 vessels/076 EVE.

Some rim fragments assigned to this form might be examples of Form 9 (Hayes 16 or Hayes 17).

 

Dimensions

Rims: 15, 17, 16, 17-19, 20-22, 20-22, 24.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (6), 2 (10).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6981 (Context A180). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim, upper wall, and juncture with lower wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (10R 6/8) body with reddish yellow (5YR 6/6) core with glossy red (10R 5.2/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Faint facets at juncture between upper and lower wall.

Use alteration: One large chip in slip on inner edge of rim.

D. r. 24; pr. ht. ca. 4.5.

PEPP 6981 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6981 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall [and base] turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

2.7.12 African Sigillata 1 Form 8 Variant 2

Hayes 14A and 14B bowl (with beveled rim).

 

General Information

Bowl with rounded rim with bevel on inner side, straight or slightly convex upper wall sloping slightly outward, vertical, or sloping slightly inward, sharp angle at juncture to lower wall, straight to slightly convex lower wall, and ring footed base.  Slightly glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Not clear that this should be distinguished from Form 8 Variant 1.

Rim diameter: 16-24 cm. (Hayes 1972, 39: ca. 16-20 cm [normal size]; Atlante I, 32, 33: 16-22 cm [Hayes 14A], 16.5-24.2 cm [Hayes 14B]).

Date of manufacture: 140/160-250/310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 41: mid second century CE [Hayes 14A], second half of second century CE [ca. 160-200+] [Hayes 14B]; Atlante I, 32, 33: end of second to third century CE [Hayes 14A and 14B]; Lund 1995, 482: 140/160-250/370 CE [Hayes 14A], 230/240-250 [Hayes 14B]; Bonifay: end of second-beginning of third century CE [Hayes 14A]; third century [first half?] [Hayes 14B]).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 39-41; Atlante I, 32, 33; Lund 1995, 482; Bonifay 2004, 157-159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 233.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 18 fragments/17 vessels/92.5 EVE.

The bevel on the rim of the examples assigned to this is not always clearly present, and some examples should perhaps be assigned to Form 8 Variant 1.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 18, 18, 21, 22-25, 23-25, 23-25, 24-27, 26-28.

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (7), 2 (10).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6979 (Contexts A105, A112). 

Two non-joining fragments preserving portion of rim and upper/middle wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with slightly glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Small facets at juncture upper and lower wall.

Use alteration: Slip pitted on upper surface rim.

D. r. na; pr. ht. 7.7.

PEPP 6979 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6979 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

 

Manufacturing sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel, with rim given bevel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall [and base] turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

One example (PN 152) has spotty sooting on exterior wall below angle, suggesting exposed to flame.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.13 African Sigillata 1 Form 8 Variant 3

Hayes 15/Bonifay Type 9 bowl.

 

General Information

Bowl with rounded rim with bevel on inner side, tall, straight or slightly convex, vertical upper wall, sharp angle at juncture to lower wall, straight to slightly convex lower wall, and ring footed base.  Slipped on all surfaces.

Size: Rim diameter: 17-24 cm. (Hayes 1972, 41: 17.5-23.5 cm).  

Date of manufacture: 250-310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 41: early-mid third century; Bonifay 2004, 159: second half of third century CE [early variant]; fourth century CE? [classic variant]).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 41; Bonifay 2004, 159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 233.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 3 fragments/1 vessel/019 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 25

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 5700 (Context A105). 

Three joining fragments preserving portion of rim and upper wall.  Rim has bevel and small groove at outer edge. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Use alteration: Slip extensively chipped on upper surface rim, with concentration at outer edge and inner edge.

D. r. 25; pr. ht. 6.2.

PEPP 5700 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5700 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel, with rim given bevel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.14 African Sigillata 1 Form 9 Variant 1

Hayes 16/Bonifay Type 6 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, short, straight, moderately steep upper wall, sharp angle at juncture to lower wall, straight lower wall, and ring footed base.  Slightly glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 12-17 cm. (Hayes 1972, 41: ca. 13-16.5 cm; Atlante I, 32: 12.3-16.2 cm). 

Date of manufacture: 160/190-250/300 CE. (Hayes 1972, 42: ca. 150-200+ CE; Atlante I, 32: first half of third century CE; Lund 1995, 483: 160/190-250/300 CE; Bonifay 2004, 159: end of second – beginning of third century CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 41-42; Atlante I, 32-33; Lund 1995, 483; Bonifay 2004, 157-159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 233.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 21 fragments/21 vessels/113 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 10, 13, 13-15, 14, 15, 16, 17-18, 21-23, 21-23, 23.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (11), 2 (8), 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6980 (Context A105). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper/lower wall. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with slightly glossy light red (10R 5.8/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Faint facets at juncture upper and lower wall and on lower wall.

D. r. 21-23; pr. ht. 2.3.

PEPP 6980 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6980 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 6980 Thin Section 215 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 6980 Thin Section 215 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall [and base] turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

One example is completely sooted, while another has patches of soot on exterior surface at rim, suggesting these vessels exposed to flame.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.15 African Sigillata 1 Form 9 Variant 2

Hayes 14C/Bonifay Type 9 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, short, straight, upper wall – either vertical or sloping slightly inward - sharp angle at juncture to lower wall, straight lower wall, and ring footed base.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 14-18 cm. (Hayes 1972, 41: 14.2-15.8 cm; Atlante I, 33: ca. 14-18 cm).  

Date of manufacture: 190-300 CE. (Hayes 1972, 41: late second-early third century CE; Atlante I, 33: as Hayes 1972, attestations in first half of third century CE; Lund 1995, 483: as Hayes 1972; Bonifay 2004, 199: third century CE).

 

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 39-41; Atlante I, 33; Lund 1995, 482-483; Bonifay 2004, 157-159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 233.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 10 fragments/10 vessels/057 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 13-16, 16-17, 17, 19-23, 20-21, 21-23, 21-23.

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (4), 2 (5), 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4909 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper/middle wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Faint facets and drag marks on lower wall.

Micromorphology: Exterior: Small facet immediately below juncture upper and lower wall. Interior: Striations, with two facets immediately below juncture upper and lower wall.

D. r. 17; pr. ht. ca. 2.7.

PEPP 4909 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4909 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall [and base] turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.16 African Sigillata 1 Form 10

Hayes 17/Bonifay Type 10 bowl (bowl and dish?).

 

General Information

Small to large bowl with rounded rim, convex wall, and ring foot.  Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 10-17 cm.  (Hayes 1972, 42, 43: ca. 10-13 cm, 16.9 cm; Atlante I, 34:as Hayes 1972).  

Date of manufacture: 120-300 CE. (Hayes 1972, 43: second half of second century CE?; Atlante I, 34: as Hayes 1972, first half of third century CE; Lund 1995, 483: ca. 120-250 CE [Hayes 17B]: Bonifay 2004, 159: third century CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 42-43; Atlante I, 34; Lund 1995, 483; Bonifay 2004, 157-159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 234.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 47 fragment/ 42 vessel/263 EVE.

Bases: 4 fragments/2 vessels/059 EVE

 

Dimensions

Rims: 12, 14, 14, 14-15, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17-19, 17-19, 19-21, 19, 19-22, 20, 20-22.

Bases: 7, 9.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (7), 2 (13), 3 (2).

 

Weight

Example (#2089) that preserves ca. one-half of vessel weighs 112 g, suggesting that complete example of this size would weigh ca. 225 g.

 

Specimen

PEPP 2089 (Context A105). 

Three fragments (two joining) that preserve entire vessel profile except for center of base.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (10R 5.8/8) body; either unslipped or covered with thin, matte light red (10R 5.8/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Striations on upper wall, large facets with a few drag marks on middle/lower wall.  Interior: Striations.

D. r. 14; d. bs., 7; ht. 4.8.

PEPP 2089 Profile Drawing

PEPP 2089 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall and base turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.17 African Sigillata 1 Form 11 Variant 1

Hayes 27/Bonifay Type 13 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, steep, strongly convex upper wall, angle to short, straight lower wall, and broad ring foot and flat, often depressed floor.  Groove on interior wall immediately below rim; two sets of grooves on floor.   Glossy to matte slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 20-36 cm. (Hayes 1972, 51: 20-28 cm; Atlante I, 31: 20-36 cm).

Date of manufacture: 160/180-270/310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 51: 160-220 CE; Atlante I, as Hayes 1972; Lund 1995, 484: 160/180-270/310 CE; Bonifay 2004, 155: third century CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 49-51; Atlante I, 31-32; Lund 1995, 484; Bonifay 2004, 158, 159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 234.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 23 fragments/23 vessels/087.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 19-21, 20, 21-22, 22-24, 25-26, 26, 26-28, 30, 35-40.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (7), 2 (14).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4900 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall.  Groove on interior wall.

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red (10R 6/8) body with glossy red (10R 5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Smooth and featureless.  Interior: Smooth and featureless.

Use alteration:  Substantial abrasion of slip on rim.  Slight chipping of slip on exterior wall.

D. r. 26; pr. ht. na.

PEPP 4900 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4900 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[7. Floor finished by compression]

8. Grooves cut in upper wall [and floor]

9. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

10. Unslipped green vessel slipped

11. Slipped green vessel dried

12. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.18 African Sigillata 1 Form 11 Variant 2

Hayes 27/Bonifay Type 13 dish (without groove on interior upper wall).

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, steep, strongly convex upper wall, angle to short lower wall, and broad ring foot and flat, often depressed floor.  Slip on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 20 cm.  (Hayes 1972, 51: 20 cm; Atlante I, 31: as Hayes 1972)

Date of manufacture: 160/180-270/310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 51: 160-220 CE; Atlante I, as Hayes 1972; Lund 484: 160/180-270/310 CE; Bonifay 2004, 155: third century CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 49-51; Atlante I, 31-32; Lund 1995, 484-485; Bonifay 2004, 158, 159; Serrano Ramos 2005, 234.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/009 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 20-21.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 8228 (Context A144). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

D.r. 20-21; pr.ht. 2.5.

Micromorphology: Exterior: Faint, broad facets on curved portion wall leading up to rim.  Interior: Striations.

Use alteration: Substantial chipping of slip on rim, with slight chipping on exterior upper wall.

PEPP  8228 Profile Drawing [In production]

PEPP 8228 Fractrue Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[7. Floor finished by compression]

8. Unslipped vessel dried

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.19 African Sigillata 1 Form 12 Variant 1

Hayes 31/Bonifay Type 11 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, steep, straight to slightly convex upper wall, angle at transition to lower wall, short, shallow, straight lower wall, and broad, small ring foot and depressed floor.  Slipped on all surfaces.

Rim diameter: 18-34 cm. (Hayes 1972, 53: 20-34 cm; Atlante I, 35: 18.2-34 cm).

Date of manufacture: 170/200-270/310 CE. (Hayes 1972, 53: early to mid third century CE; Atlante I, 36: first half of third century CE; Lund 1995, 485: 170/200-270/310 CE; Bonifay 2004, 159: third century CE).

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 52-53; Atlante I, 35-36; Lund 1995, 484-485; Bonifay 2004, 157-159.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 25 fragments/24 vessels/096 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 16, 19, 20, 22, 22-24, 22-25, 23, 24-26, 25, 26, 27, 29-31, 33-36, 34-35.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (16), 2(3), 3 (1), 4 (2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6982 (Context A160). 

Two fragments (joining) preserving portion of rim and upper wall. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Red (10R 5.2/8) body with slightly glossy red (10R 5.2/8) slip on all preserved surfaces, pimply on interior. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Smooth, with small facets on lower upper wall and at junction with lower wall.  Interior: Smooth, with traces of smoothing, including rough depressed band with irregular edges and gouges on lower upper wall.

D. r. 23; pr. ht. 3.4.

PEPP 6982 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6982 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall [and base] turned

[6. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[7. Floor finished by compression]

8. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.20 African Sigillata 1 Form 12 Variant 2

Hayes 31 similis dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, low straight upper wall rising at intermediate angle, curved transition to short, horizontal, lower wall, and broad, tiny ring foot and flat floor.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 3 fragments/1 vessel/29 EVE.

Base: 1 fragment/1 vessel/14 EVE

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 15/10/2.1.

Rim: 15.

Base: 10.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4907 (Contexts A022, B209, B276). 

Three fragments (non-joining) that preserve entire vessel profile except for center of base.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with matte light red/red (1YR 5.5/8) slip on all surfaces.

Micromorphology: Exterior:  Short gouges and pits on lower wall; gouges in area inside ring foot.  Interior: Striations on upper wall, faint, large facets on lower wall and floor. (Lower wall and base definitely turned, floor probably compressed)

Use alteration: Slip almost completely abraded away from resting surface ring foot and angle at juncture upper and lower wall.

D. r. 15; d. bs. 10; ht. 2.1.

PEPP 4907 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4907 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

5. Lower wall and base turned

6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

8. Slipped green vessel dried

9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No useful evidence.

 

 

2.7.21 African Sigillata 1 Form 13

Beaker (probably Hayes 135, perhaps Hayes 131).

 

General Information

Thin-walled beaker with small everted rim and sloping shoulder.  Remainder of form uncertain, though presumably has one vertical strap handle and a turned disk base, with body perhaps undecorated or decorated with chattering or dimpling.  Slipped on rim and upper wall on interior and exterior and presumably all of exterior.

Rim diameter: 7-9 cm. (Hayes 1972, 180: 7.0-8.2/8.5 cm).  

Date of manufacture:  60/70-110/120 CE.  (Hayes, 1972: end of first to early second century CE?; Atlante I, 38: as Hayes 1972; attestations in second half of second century CE).

Assumed function: drink consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 178, 180; Atlante I, 38; Serrano Ramos 2005, 235.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/005 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 10.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6989 (Context D131). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall. 

Fabric Variant 3. Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces, glossy on exterior, matte on interior. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Striations.  Interior: Compression ridges and striations.

D. r. 10; pr. ht. 1.6; th. w. 2.5 mm.

PEPP 6989 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6989 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A. Blank thrown on wheel *

[2B. Handle formed] @

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried]

[7. Handle attached]

8. Unslipped green vessel slipped

9. Slipped green vessel dried

10. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

or:

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A. Blank thrown on wheel *

[2B. Handle formed] @

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried]

[7. Wall dimpled]

[8. Handle attached]

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

 

or:

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A. Blank thrown on wheel *

[2B. Handle formed] @

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Chattering cut in wall]

[7. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried]

[8. Handle attached]

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

* Presumably thrown from the hump.

@ Handle presumably sliced.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.22 African Sigillata 1 Form 14

Beaker (perhaps Hayes 136).

 

General Information

Thin-walled beaker with large everted rim and sloping shoulder.  Remainder of form uncertain, though presumably has one vertical strap handle and a turned disk base, with body perhaps decorated with chattering.  Glossy slip on interior on rim down to juncture with wall and on exterior on rim and upper wall and presumably all of exterior.

Date of manufacture: 60/70-110/120 CE. (Hayes 1972, 180: end of first to early second century CE; Atlante I, 39: as Hayes 1972).

Assumed function: drink consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 180; Atlante I, 39.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/005 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 10.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4962 (Context A022). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on preserved exterior surface and interior surface down to juncture with upper wall, glossy on exterior, matte on interior. 

Use alteration: Slip extensively chipped on inner and outer edges of rim.

D. r. 10; pr. ht. 2.2; th. w. 2.5 mm.

PEPP 4962 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4962 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A. Blank thrown on wheel *

[2B. Handle formed] @

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[5. Lower wall and base turned]

[6. Chattering cut in wall?]

[7. Unslipped vessel removed from wheel and dried]

[8. Handle attached]

9. Unslipped green vessel slipped

10. Slipped green vessel dried

11. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12-13

* Presumably thrown from the hump.

@ Handle presumably sliced.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.23 African Sigillata 1 Form 15

Hayes 20 lid.

 

General Information

Lid with horizontal rim with rounded tip, slightly convex wall, and low, disk-shaped knob; short vertical seating collar with rounded tip projecting downward from underside of wall near rim.  Two ridges on exterior wall – one on middle wall and one on lower wall - with two bands of chattering between them.  Glossy to matte slip on exterior, underside of rim, and outer face of seating collar.

Size: Rim diameter: 11-19 cm. (Hayes 1972, 44-45: 11.3-18.6 cm).

Date of manufacture:  60-200 CE. (Hayes 1972, 45: late first – early second century CE; Atlante I: as Hayes 1972; attested in Hadrianic and Antonine contexts; not produced beyond end of second century CE).

Assumed function: food serving; presumably used with one of African Sigillata 1 forms intended to take a lid.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 44-45; Atlante I, 28; Serrano Ramos 2005, 232.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/025 EVE.

Base (knob): 1 fragment/1 vessel/100 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rims: 19.

Base (knob): 2.

 

Weight:  Fragment preserving ca. 15 percent of middle/lower wall, rim, and flange weighs 43 g, suggesting that complete example of that size weighed somewhat more than ca. 300 g. (perhaps no more than ca. 400 g).

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variants 1 (1), 2 (1).

 

Specimens

PEPP 5070 (Context D219). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and lower/middle wall. Two ridges on exterior lower wall with two bands of chattering between them.  Wheel ridging on interior wall.

Fabric Variant 2.  Red (10R 5/7) body with highly glossy, pimply red (10R 5/7) slip on exterior and matte, light red/red (10R 5.5/6) slip on underside of rim and exterior surface of seating collar.

Micromorphology: Interior: Striations on wall.

Use alteration: A few large chips missing from seating collar.  Dense pitting above upper ridge on wall.  Light sooting on tip of rim.

D. r. 19; d. seating collar 16; pr. ht. 3.5.

PEPP 5070 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5070 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

PEPP 4963 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving knob and portion of upper wall. 

Fragment not available for characterization.

D. bs.: 2.0; pr. ht.: 1.5:

PEPP 4963 Profile Drawing

 

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel *

3. Blank removed form wheel and partially dried

4. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted potion and exterior surface turned to form ridges [and upper surface of knob turned?]

5. Chattering cut in wall

6. Vessel removed from wheel and dried

7. Unslipped green vessel slipped

 8. Slipped green vessel dried

 9. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 10

 * Thrown upside down as bowl, with wall folded back on itself with terminal portion turned up to form seating collar.

 

Nature of Use

One example has sooting on rim, indicating that employed for cover of vessel set over fire.

 

Chronology

No new information.

 

 

2.7.24 African Sigillata 1 Form 16

Hayes 160 bottle.

 

General Information

Bottle with upper neck flaring towards upper end, rib with sloping upper surface separating upper neck from lower neck, with heavy wheel ridging on interior.  Probably had rounded rim, cylindrical lower neck below rib, bulbous body with waist at middle, tall disk base, and single vertical strap handle attaching at upper end of lower neck and shoulder/waist.  Glossy to matte slip on exterior.  Sole example preserving upper neck does not show pronounced spiral ridging on exterior as examples illustrated in Hayes 1972 and Atlante I. 

Date of manufacture:  150-210/220. (Hayes 1972, 190: Antonine -Severan; Atlante I, 47: second half of second-beginning of third century CE).

Assumed function: drink serving.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 189-190; Atlante I, 46-47; Serrano Ramos 2005, 235.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Handle: fragment 1/vessel 1/EVE 100.

 

Dimensions

Neither example preserves any intact dimension.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimens

Two specimens were recovered in same context and have identical fabric and are probably from same vessel.

 

PEPP 5160 (Context A012). 

Fragment preserving portion of neck. Rib on exterior at lower preserved edge.  Pronounced wheel ridging on interior.  Fragment appears to preserve juncture between body/lower neck and middle/upper neck, with former including rib, and latter inserted into former, with paste on interior smoothed downwards to cover seam.

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red (3YR 6/8) body with matte light red (3YR 6/8) slip on exterior surface. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Striations near upper preserved edge.

D. neck at mid-point preserved portion: 4.2; th. wall: 0.5-0.7.

PEPP 5160 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5160 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

PEPP 5161 (Context A012). 

Fragment preserving portion of wall and lower handle attachment. Scar from handle attachment shows that handle had strongly convex dorsal surface.

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red (2.5 YR 6/8) body with slightly glossy light red (2YR 5.8/8) slip on exterior surface. 

Th. w. 0.6-0.8.

PEPP 5161 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5161 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A1. Body/lower neck blank thrown on wheel

2A2. Body/lower neck blank removed from wheel and partially dried

2B1. Upper neck thrown on wheel

2B2. Upper neck removed from wheel and partially dried

2C. Handle formed

[3. Body/lower neck remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4. Base (and lower wall?) turned]

[5. Body/lower neck removed from wheel]

[6. Body/lower neck remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

7. Upper neck attached to body/lower neck *

[8. Vessel removed from wheel]

9. Handle attached

10. Unslipped vessel dried

11. Unslipped green vessel slipped

12. Slipped green vessel dried

13. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 18

*Operation involved inserting upper neck into lower neck and smoothing paste downward while vessel rotated to seal seam.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.25 African Sigillata 1 Form 17

Closed form meant to take lid (probably Atlante XXII.5 jar or similar).

 

General Information

Thickened rim with pointed outer face and slight lid seating.  Slip on rim and interior and exterior upper neck

Probably Atlante I XXII.5 jar or similar, with two vertical strap handles, disk base, and slip on exterior and upper part of interior.

 

Date of manufacture:  60/70-110/120 CE. (Atlante I, 48: probably end of first - beginning of second century CE).

Assumed function: food/drink serving.

Bibliography: Atlante I, 48.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragments/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6997 (Context A033). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

D. r. na; pr. ht. 1.0.

PEPP 6997 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6997 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A1. Blank thrown on wheel

2A2. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[2B. Handles formed]

[3. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4. Base turned]

[5. Vessel removed form wheel]

[6. Handles attached]

7. Unslipped vessel dried

8. Unslipped green vessel slipped

9. Slipped green vessel dried

10. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.26 African Sigillata 1 Form 18

Closed form.

 

General Information

Closed form with slightly flaring neck with eccentric rim (rim with spout?) with slight thickening on exterior.  Glossy slip on exterior and interior upper wall. 

Probably trilobate pitcher, with slip on exterior and upper portion interior.

 

Assumed function: drink serving.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6988 (Context D131). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper part of neck.  Eccentric – part of spout?

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with glossy red (10R 4.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Interior: Possible compression ridges.

D. r. na; pr. ht. 1.9; th. w. 0.3.

PEPP 6988 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6988 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Too little evidence to posit reconstruction.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

Context in which sole example recovered indicates that manufacture of form began by at least 190/200 CE.

 

 

2.7.27 African Sigillata 1 Form 19

Jug (probably Hayes 161 n. 2/Atlante 1 XXII.4).

 

General Information

Jug with everted rim with rounded tip, possible slight lid seating, sloping shoulder, and curved middle/lower wall straightening towards base.  Groove on exterior neck immediately below rim.  Highly glossy slip on exterior from rim down at least to lower wall and matte slip on upper part of neck on interior.

Probably Hayes 161 n. 4/Atlante 1 XXII.4 jug, with two vertical strap handles attached at upper neck and shoulder and  rat-tails at lower attachments,  disk base with concave lower surface, and slip on exterior and upper portion interior. 

Date of manufacture: 60/70-110/120 CE. (Atlante I, 48: end of first - beginning of second century CE).

Assumed function: drink serving.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 190; Atlante I, 48.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 13.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6990 (Context D083). 

Two fragments (joining) preserving portion of rim and upper wall and 25 body fragments (some joining) preserving parts of upper, middle, and lower wall.  At least one groove on exterior wall immediately below rim.  Wheel ridging on interior. 

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with red (10R 5/8) slip, highly glossy on all preserved parts of exterior surface and matte on interior immediately below rim and in drips running down shoulder.

Micromorphology: Interior: Compression ridges on shoulder.

Use alteration: Slip extensively abraded on outer face rim.

D. r. 13; pr. ht. na; th. w. 0.2-0.4.

PEPP 6990 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6990 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2A1. Blank thrown on wheel *

2A2. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

[2B. Handles formed]

[3. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4. Base turned]

[5. Vessel removed from wheel]

[6. Handles attached]

7. Unslipped vessel dried

8. Unslipped green vessel slipped

9. Slipped green vessel dried

10. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

* Operation involved cutting groove in neck.  Groove probably served to enhance strength of upper handle attachments.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.28 African Sigillata 1 Form 20

Closed form with grooving and chattering on exterior. 

 

General Information

Vessel with angled wall with decoration consisting of two pairs of grooves with multiple bands of chattering between them.  Highly glossy slip on exterior wall only and wheel ridging on interior wall indicate a closed form.  Orientation not certain, although fragment appears to represent angular juncture of lower upper wall and upper lower wall, with decoration on lower upper wall. 

Decoration similar to that attested on three small to large jugs - Hayes 157/Atlante I XX.2, Atlante I XX.12 and Hayes 158/Atlante I XXI.3.

Assumed function: unknown.

 

Representation in Assemblage

No rim, base, or handle fragments represented.

 

Dimensions

Sole specimen does not preserve any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4829 (Context D083). 

Fragment preserving portion of upper and lower wall.  Exterior wall has two groves with 11-12 bands of chattering between them; possible third groove at upper preserved edge.  Wheel ridging on interior. 

Fabric Variant 1.  Red (10R 5/6) body with highly glossy light red (9R 5/8) slip on preserved portion of exterior surface. 

Micromorphology: Interior: Striations.

Use alteration: Slip heavily abraded from upper edge of chattering down to lower preserved edge.

Pr. ht. ca. 6; th. w. 0.3-0.4.

PEPP 4829 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4829 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Grooves cut before chattering executed.

Lower wall and base turned?

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

Context in which sole example recovered indicates that manufacture of form began by at least 100/110 CE.  This date compatible with Hayes 157/Atlante I XX.2; perhaps too early for Atlante I XX.12; too early for Hayes 158/Atlante I XXI.3.

 

 

2.7.29 African Sigillata 1 Form 21

Hayes 147 canteen.

 

General Information

Vessel with lentoid body with short neck/rim at one side; two sharply bent strap handles, one to either side of neck, attached to neck and side of body; no base.  Neck generally strongly concave, with rim straight to everted with rounded tip.  Sides of body sometimes decorated with grooves or grooves and/or bands of chattering or burnished.  Slipped on exterior.

Body diameter: 10-18 cm (Hayes 1972, 185: 10.4-17.6).

Date of manufacture: 60/70-110/120 CE. (Hayes 1972, 186: probably late first to early second century CE; Atlante I, 49: as Hayes 1972; perhaps as late as second half of second century or beginning of third century CE).

Assumed function: drink transport/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 185; Atlante I, 49.

 

Representation in Assemblage

No diagnostic fragments.

 

Dimensions

No examples preserve any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6999 (Contexts A012, B186). 

Three fragments (two joining) preserving juncture of two halves of vessel wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red/red (1YR 5.5/8) body with red (1YR 5/8) slip on preserved part of exterior surface.

Micromorphology: Exterior: Two small facets on one side immediately adjacent to juncture; two patches of rough slip on this same surface, apparently caused by grasping with fingers.

D. w. na

PEPP 6999 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6999 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slurry prepared

1C. Slip prepared

2A1. Left side body thrown on wheel (?)

2A2. Left side body removed from wheel and partially dried

2B1: Right side body thrown on wheel (?)

2B2. Right side body removed from wheel and partially dried

[2C1: Neck/rim thrown on wheel]

[2C2. Neck/rim removed from wheel and partially dried]

[2D: Handles formed]

3. Two halves of body joined with slurry

[4. Body mounted on wheel on one side and grooving and/or chattering cut (optional)]

[5. Body mounted on wheel on other side and grooving and then/or chattering cut (optional)]

[6. Body removed from wheel]

[7. Neck attached]

[8. Handles attached]

9. Unslipped vessel dried

10. [Unslipped vessel burnished (optional)]

11. Unslipped green vessel slipped

12. Slipped green vessel dried

13. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 18, 19, or 20

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

Specimen confirms that manufacture of form began by last decade of first or first decade of second century CE.

 

 

2.7.30 African Sigillata 1 Rim 1

Rim fragments from late contexts not classified by form.

 

General Information

Rim fragments of African Sigillata 1 from contexts in Sectors A and B deposited after ca. 350 CE that were not classified by form due to the fact that they could be considered highly antecedent (i.e., residual).  These were counted and weighted, though no effort was made to identify fragments belonging to the same vessel nor was a measurement taken of the percent of rim diameter that each fragment preserved.  Fragments that were significant from a typological, technological, or functional point of view, however, were assigned a PN number and in some cases accessioned.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 64 fragments.

 

 

2.7.31 African Sigillata 1 Base 1

Base with small-diameter ring foot from small to medium open form.

 

General Information

Base with ring foot usually less than 10 cm in diameter, though occasionally in the 10-13 cm range); gloss slip on both exterior and interior. 

Presumably mostly or exclusively from bowl and dish forms.  Forms likely include some of African Sigillata 1 Forms 1-10 and perhaps other forms not documented.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Bases:  78 fragments/74 vessels/ 1,051.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions:

Bases: 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5-6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 12, 13.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1) (and presumably one or more additional variants).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6983 (Context A153). 

Fragment preserving portion of lower wall and outer portion of base.  Probably from African Sigillata 1 Form 6 or 7.

Fabric Variant 2.  Red (10R 5/8) body with glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/6) slip on all preserved surfaces, pimply on exterior. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Drag marks in area inside foot.

Use alteration:  Slip extensively chipped on resting surface ring foot.

Epigraphy: Alphabetic graffito on exterior in area inside foot:

S+

[i.e. Two letters from right to left: reversed three-stroke letter S, then a vertical stroke that may be the letter I or part of letter.] 

Complex incised drawing partially preserved on interior surface of floor; motif not clear. 

D. bs. 8; pr. ht. 2.3.

PEPP 6983 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6983 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence        

Ring foot produced and in some cases wall below angle shaped by turning in inverted position.

 

Nature of Use

One specimen (PN 356) displays substantial abrasion of slip on interior surface, suggesting protracted use for operations that produced abrasion of slip.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.32 African Sigillata 1 Base 2

Base with low, large-diameter ring foot from medium to large open form.

 

General Information

Base with low ring foot in the 12-25 cm range; gloss slip on both exterior and interior. 

Forms likely represented include African Sigillata 1 Forms 11 and 12.  Three examples have pair of grooves in floor, hence probably from African Sigillata 1 Form 11.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Bases: 55 fragments/ 55 vessels/ 247 EVE

 

Dimensions

Bases: 12-14, 12-15, 13-15, 13-15, 14, 14-16, 15-17, 15-18, 15-18, 16, 17-20, 18-23, 19, 20, 20, 20-22, 22-24, 25, 25.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1) (and presumably one or more additional variants, including African Sigillata 1 Variant 2).

 

Specimen

PEPP 5734 (Context A124). 

Fragment preserving portion of lower wall and outer part of base.  Probably from African Sigillata 1 Form 12.

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with slightly glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces.

Micromorphology: Interior: Large facets on wall. 

Use alteration: Slip and underlying body extensively chipped on resting surface ring foot.  Slip extensively chipped along angle at juncture upper and lower wall.

D. bs. 20-22; pr. ht. 3.9.

PEPP 5734 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5734 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence        

Ring foot produced and in some cases wall below angle shaped by turning in inverted position.  Floor compressed.

 

Nature of Use

One example (PEPP 5734) displays probable light sooting on exterior upper wall, indicating employed over fire at least one time.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.33 African Sigillata 1 Base 3

Base from small/thin-walled closed form (probably beaker).

 

General Information

Low disk base with slightly inclined outer face; thin, moderately steep, convex lower wall; gloss slip on exterior only. 

Presumably from thin-walled beaker such as African Sigillata 1 Forms 13 and 14.

Assumed function: drink consumption.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 3 fragments/2 vessels/075 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Base: 4, 4.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6984 (Context A067). 

Two fragments (joining) preserving portion of lower wall and outer edge of base.

Fabric Variant 3.  Light red (10R 5.8/8) body with glossy red (10R 5.2/8) slip on preserved portion of exterior surface. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Faint facets on wall; drag marks and gouges.  Interior: Striations.

Use alteration: Slip slightly abraded on underside base (resting surface ring foot?).

D. bs. 4; pr. ht. 1.1; th. w. 0.25-0.3.

PEPP 6984 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6984 Fracture Surface Photomicorgraph

 

Manufacturing sequence

Base and lower wall formed by turning in inverted position on wheel.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

 

2.7.34 African Sigillata 1 Base 4

Base from small closed form.

 

General Information

Flat base with steep, concave lower wall; gloss slip on exterior only. 

Closest comparanda are Hayes 144/Atlante I XIX.12 beaker and Atlante I XX.6 jug.

Assumed function: food serving or drink consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 184; Atlante I, 39, 42.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Base: 1 fragment/1 vessel/048 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Base: 4.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 4958 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving portion of lower wall and entire base except for center.  Wheel ridging on interior wall. 

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (1YR 6/8) body with red (10R 5/8) slip on preserved portion of exterior surface, slightly glossy on wall, matte on underside of base. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Drag marks and gouges on underside base.  Interior: Faint wheel ridging and striations

D. bs. 4; pr. ht. 2.0; th. w. 0.25.

PEPP 4958 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4958 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Base perhaps finished by turning in inverted position on wheel.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No useful evidence.

 

 

2.7.35 African Sigillata 1 Base 5

Base from medium-sized closed form.

 

General Information

Disk base with curved outer face with slight groove at upper edge and groove on underside close to edge; steep lower wall; gloss slip on exterior only. 

Closest comparandum is Hayes Form 161 n. 1/Atlante I XXII.3 table amphora.

Assumed function: food/drink serving.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 180; Atlante I, 48.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/006 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Base: 11.  

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 3 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6986 (Context D131). 

Fragment preserving portion of lower wall and outer edge of base.  Groove on underside of base defining false ring foot. 

Fabric Variant 3.  Red (10R 5.2/8) body with glossy light red (1YR 6/8) slip on preserved portion of exterior surface. 

Micromorphology: Interior: Striations.

D. bs. 11; pr. ht. 1.4; th. w. 0.3.

PEPP 6986 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6986 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Sole example too small to permit useful evaluation.  Base presumably finished by turning in inverted position on wheel.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

Sole example from context indicating that manufacture of form to which it belongs began by end of second century CE.

 

 

2.7.36 African Sigillata 1 Base 6

Base fragments from late contexts not classified by form.

 

General Information

Base fragments of African Sigillata 1 from contexts in Sectors A and B deposited after ca. 350 CE were not classified by form due to the fact that they could be considered highly antecedent (i.e., residual).  These were counted and weighted, though no effort was made to identify fragments belonging to the same vessel nor was a measurement taken of the percent of base diameter that each fragment preserved.  Fragments that were significant from a typological, technological, or functional point of view, however, were assigned a PN number and in some cases accessioned.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Bases: 16 fragments.

 

 

2.7.37 African Sigillata 1 Handle 1

Strap handle from closed vessel.

 

General Information

Strap handle with three furrows in dorsal surface, slightly bent above lower attachment. 

Probably from small to medium-sized closed form.  Best comparandum is Hayes 138/Atlante I XIX.16 small jug.

Assumed function: food/drink serving.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 181-182; Atlante I, 140.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Handle: 1 fragment/1 vessel/100 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not preserve any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 1 (1).

 

Specimen

PEPP 6998 (Context A092). 

Fragment preserving lower portion of strap handle.  Dorsal surface convex with three furrows; ventral surface concave; left side rounded with burr; right side flat.

Fabric Variant 1.  Light red/red (10R 5.5/8) body with light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces, glossy on dorsal surface; matte on ventral surface. 

W. h. 1.8.

PEPP 6998 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6998 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Handle produced by slicing.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No useful evidence.

 

 

2.7.38 African Sigillata 1 Handle 2

Strap handle from closed vessel.

 

General Information

Sharply curved handle with small furrow in dorsal surface. 

Probably from medium-sized closed form.  Best comparandum is Hayes 160/Atlante I XXI.9-10 bottle.

Assumed function: food/drink serving.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 189-190; Atlante I, 46-47.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragments/1 vessel/100 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Fabric Variants

African Sigillata 1 Fabric Variant 2 (1)

 

Specimen

PEPP 4960 (Context A038). 

Fragment preserving middle/upper portion of handle. Dorsal surface slightly convex; ventral surface flat; left side has and burr with oblique facet at upper end presumably related to upper attachment; right side rounded.

Fabric Variant 2.  Light red (1YR 5.8/7) body with slightly glossy light red/red (10R 5.5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Use alteration: Slip extensively chipped on dorsal surface.

W. h. 1.4.

PEPP 4960 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4960 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

Handle produced by slicing.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No useful evidence.

 

 

2.7.39 African Sigillata 1 Body 1

Body fragments from open forms. 

Body fragments that have gloss slip on both surfaces that presumably belong chiefly to bowl and dish forms, including those documented in the assemblage and perhaps other forms. 

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 284 fragments.

 

 

2.7.41 African Sigillata 1 Body 2

Body fragments from unidentified thin-walled closed forms. 

Body fragments thinner than ca. 3 mm that have gloss slip on exterior surface and not on interior surface that presumably belong to beaker forms, including those documented in the assemblage and perhaps other forms.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 33 fragments.

 

 

2.7.40 African Sigillata 1 Body 3

Body fragments from unidentified closed forms.

Body fragments that have gloss slip on exterior surface and not on interior surface that presumably belong chiefly to closed forms, including those documented in the assemblage and perhaps other forms. 

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 11 fragments.

 

 

2.7.42 African Sigillata 1 Body 4

Body fragments from late contexts not classified by form.

 

General Information

Body fragments of African Sigillata 1 from contexts in Sectors A and B deposited after ca. 350 CE were not classified by form due to the fact that they could be considered highly antecedent (i.e., residual).

These were counted and weighed.

n.b. Weight value for all African Sigillata 1 rims, bases and body fragments from the contexts in question is entered under this vessel part type.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 46 fragments.

 

 

 

 

3. African Sigillata 2

The Palatine East assemblage includes 22 fragments belonging to this class that weigh a total of 261 grams and derive from at least 10 vessels.  This class, which has elsewhere been termed sigillata africana A/D and ARS A/D, consists of a set of distinct, heavy-walled open forms that display affinities with forms in both African Sigillata 1 (ARS A) and African Sigillata 5 (ARS D).  These have a gritty, light red or red body that displays no visible inclusions, and have a notably thick, regular, highly glossy light red or red slip on all surfaces.

This class, recognized by Hayes, though first formally defined only in Atlante I, was initially regarded as a unitary production originating somewhere in central Tunisia.  A program of compositional research carried out by Mackensen and Schneider, however, has demonstrated, that it subsumes two distinct, if apparently related (in terms of chronology, the set of forms represented, and overall appearance) production groups.  One of these, which has a gritty, quartz-rich fabric containing a distinct component of calcareous bodies, can be associated with a pottery workshop located at Henchir El-Guellal, near Djilma, in the interior of central Tunisia that also produced African Sigillata 3.  The other, which has a gritty, quartz-rich body that lacks a significant component of calcareous bodies, displays a chemical composition that Mackensen and Schneider believed pointed to an origin somewhere in northern Tunisia.  The fact that examples of this second production group were abundant among a set of excavated materials from Sabratha, on the coast of Tripolitania, however, also led these scholars to hold open the possibility that it originated somewhere in this region.  At the same time, the similarity of this second production to the first suggests that it, too, may have originated somewhere in central Tunisia, presumably at no great distance from Henchir El-Guellal.

The production of this class was originally thought to have occurred over a somewhat restricted period of time, extending from the late second to the middle of the third century CE (ca. 180/190-250/260 CE).  Lund’s review of the dating evidence for the suite of forms associated with it, however, indicates that this should be expanded to ca. 160/180-300/310 CE.

The Palatine East materials display two different (if not easily distinguishable or distinguishable with  complete confidence) fabrics that appear to correspond to the  two fabrics described by Mackensen and Schneider, and they have accordingly been divided for documentation and presentation into two sub-classes, designated African Sigillata 2.1 and African Sigillata 2.2.  A small number of body fragments were not classified by fabric and were documented and are presented simply as African Sigillata 2. 

The contexts in which these materials were recovered at the Palatine East are compatible with the date ranges suggested in previous publications for the various forms represented and for the class/two sub-classes overall.

 

Bibliography

Hayes 1972, 43, 51-56, 289; Atlante I, 52-58;  Lund 1995, 483-485; Camilli 1995, 25; Mackensen and Schneider 2002, 130, 141, 158; Bonifay 2004, 50-51; Serrano Ramos 2005, 235-237; Mackensen and Schneider 2006, 165, 168, 173-174, 177, 182-183, 185-187; Ben Moussa 2007, 67-68.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 6 fragments

Weight: 48 g

 

African Sigillata 2 Body 1

Unidentified open form/forms.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 6 fragments

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

3.1 African Sigillata 2.1

This sub-class consists of the material in a gritty, quartz-rich fabric with a notable component of calcareous bodies that is assumed to correspond to the production group recognized by Mackensen and Schneider that originated at Djilma - Henchir El-Guellal in the interior of central Tunisia.

 

Fabric

Fabric name: African Sigillata 2.1 Fabric.

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with an irregular fracture surface and gritty texture, displaying no visible inclusions.  Red with highly glossy red slip on all surfaces.

Microscope:  Fine to slightly gritty texture with non-carbonate matrix; abundant small to medium, angular to subrounded colorless grains (quartz); absent to rare, medium, rounded reddish bodies (claystone); frequent small, round reaction rims (calcium carbonate); rare medium, round and irregular reaction rims and white bodies (calcium carbonate); absent to rare, small, rounded and irregular voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 2.1 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs

 

Petrographic Analysis

N = 1

PEPP 7000 Thin Section 201 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 7000 Thin Section 201 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Forms Represented in Assemblage

Form 1: Hayes 18 dish

Form 2: Hayes 31 dish

Base 1: Base from Hayes 27 or 31 dish

Montage of African Sigillata 2.1 Forms/Profile Drawings

 

Manufacturing Technology:

Paste preparation: It is unclear whether the manufacture of this class involved the use of a non-carbonate clay containing a natural component of very fine to fine sand or the additional very fine to fine sand temper to a fine non-carbonate clay.

Forming: The manufacture of the two forms and the base attested for this sub-class involved remounting a vessel blank on the wheel in inverted position and shaping its lower wall and base by turning.  The profiles of the floor of the forms and the base attested for this sub-class as these are documented through more complete examples than those available from the assemblage suggests that the vessel blank was remounted on the wheel in right-side-up position and the floor finished by compression.

Slipping: The fact that the two forms and the base attested for this class bear slip on all preserved surfaces suggests that they were slipped by immersion.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/005 EVE

Bases: 1 fragment/1 vessel/002.5 EVE

 

African Sigillata 2.1 Form 1

Hayes 18 dish.

 

General Information:

Dish with rounded rim, steep, slightly convex upper wall, sharp transition to wide, shallow, straight lower wall, medium-diameter, medium-height triangular ring foot, and broad, depressed floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameter 19-27 cm.

Date of manufacture: ca. 200-250 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 43; Atlante I, 53; Lund 1995, 483; Serrano Ramos 2005, 236.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6968 (Context A160). 

Fragments preserving rim, wall, and outer portion of floor. 

Light red/red (2.5YR 5.5/8) body, with reddish brown (2.5YR 5/4) core and highly glossy red (2.5YR 5.2/8) slip on all surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: medium facets on wall; underside of base smooth.  Interior: medium facets on wall; floor smooth. 

D. r. na.; pr. ht. 2.7.

PEPP 6968 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6968 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Lower wall [and base] turned

[4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[4B2. Floor compressed]

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.1 Form 2

Hayes 31 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, steep, straight to slightly convex upper wall, sharp transition to very narrow, shallow, lower wall, large-diameter, small ring foot, and broad, depressed floor.  Thick, glossy slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameter 20-34 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 170/200-270/310 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 52-53; Atlante I, 54; Lund 1995, 485.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Specimen

PEPP 7000 (Context A036). 

Fragment preserving profile from rim to edge of foot. 

Red (10R 5/8) body, with highly glossy red (1R5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Medium facets on wall becoming small at curve immediately above foot.  Interior: Medium facets and/or striations (from smoothing slip?).  

D. r. na; pr. ht. ca. 3.8.

PEPP 7000 Profile Drawing

PEPP 7000 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 7000 Thin Section 201 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 7000 Thin Section 201 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Lower wall and base turned

[4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[4B2. Floor compressed]

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.1 Base 1

Hayes 27 dish or Hayes 31 dish.

 

General Information

Narrow, shallow lower wall, large-diameter, small ring foot, and broad floor.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 49-51, 52-53; Atlante I, 54; Lund 1995, 484, 485.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Bases: 1 fragment/1 vessel/002.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Base: 20.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6964 (Context B186). 

Fragment preserving portion of base and juncture with wall.

Red (1.5YR 5/8) body, with highly glossy red (10R 5/8) slip on both surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior and interior surfaces smooth. 

Use alteration: Slip on exterior surface heavily abraded (probably during use) along line at juncture between base and wall (foot is so low that vessel probably rested on this).

D. bs. 20; pr. ht. 0.8. 

PEPP 6964 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6964 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

3.2 African Sigillata 2.2

This sub-class consists of the material in a gritty, quartz-rich fabric without a significant component of calcareous bodies that is assumed to correspond to the production group recognized by Mackensen and Schneider that they conjectured originated in either northern Tunisian or western coastal Tripolitania.

 

Fabric

Fabric name: African Sigillata 2.2 Fabric.

Hand specimen: medium hardness, with irregular break and gritty fracture surface displaying no visible inclusions.  Light red or red with highly glossy light red or red slip.

Microscope:  Gritty texture with non-carbonate matrix displaying abundant small, angular to sub-round colorless grains (quartz); absent to rare medium, subangular to subround colorless grains (quartz); sparse, small, irregular reddish bodies (claystone); absent to rare small to medium, round and irregular reaction rims and white bodies (calcium carbonate); and sparse, small, rounded voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 2.2 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs

 

Petrographic Analysis

Thin sections: N = 1

PEPP 6963 Thin Section 200 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 6963 Thin Section 200 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Forms Represented in Assemblage

Form 1: Hayes 27/Ostia I Fig 16 dish

Form 2: Hayes 32 dish

Form 3: Hayes 33 plate

Form 4: Ostia I Fig.30 dish

Form 5: Not previously attested flanged bowl or mortarium

Montage of African Sigillata 2.2 Forms/Profile Drawings

 

Manufacturing Technology:

Paste preparation: It is unclear whether the manufacture of this class involved the use of a non-carbonate clay containing a natural component of very fine to fine sand or the additional very fine to fine sand temper to a fine non-carbonate clay.

Forming: The manufacture of the forms belonging to this sub-class for which there is evidenced regarding the lower wall and base involved remounting a vessel blank on the wheel in inverted position and shaping its lower wall and base by turning.  The profiles of the floor of the forms and the base attested for this sub-class as these are documented through more complete examples than those available from the assemblage suggests that the vessel blank was remounted on the wheel in right-side-up position and the floor finished by compression.

Slipping: The fact that the forms attested for this class bear slip on all preserved surfaces suggests that they were slipped by immersion.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rim: 12 fragments/9 vessels/046.5 EVE.

Base: 1 fragment/1 vessel/007 EVE.

 

African Sigillata 2.2 Form 1

Hayes 27/Ostia I Fig. 16 dish

 

General Information

Dish with rounded rim, continuous convex wall, large- to medium-diameter, small ring foot, and flat or depressed floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  Examples of Hayes 27 usually have decorative groove on interior mid to upper wall and multiple grooves on floor.  

Size: Rim diameter 23-33 cm.  

Date of manufacture: Hayes 27 ca. 160/180-270/310 CE, Ostia I Fig. 16 perhaps ca. 200-250 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 49-51; Atlante I, 53, 54; Lund 1995, 484; Serrano Ramos 2005, 236.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 6 fragments/4 vessels/026 EVE.

Bases: 1fragment/ 1 vessel/007 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 32-34/25/ -.

Rim: 26, 27, 27, 32-34.

Base: 25.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6963 (Context B209).

Two non-joining fragments preserving portion of rim and middle/upper wall. 

Red (1YR 5/8) body, with highly glossy light red (1.5YR 5.8/8) slip all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: medium facets on wall; interior: striations on wall.  

Use alteration: Exterior surface has light abrasion of slip in zone immediately below rim. 

D. r. 27; pr. ht. 3.8.

PEPP 6963 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6963 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 6963 Thin Section 200 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 6963 Thin Section 200 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Lower wall [and base] turned

[4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[4B2. Grooves cut in wall and floor (optional)]

[4B3. Floor compressed]

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12-13

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.2 Form 2

Hayes Form 32 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with short flanged rim with rounded or flattened tip, low, slightly convex wall at medium to steep angle, large-diameter, small ring foot, and very wide, depressed floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  Most examples have decorative groove on interior at junction of wall and floor.  

Size: Rim diameter: 23-32 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 170/225-310 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 49-51; Atlante I, 53, 54; Lund 1995, 484; Serrano Ramos 2005, 236-237.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/005 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Specimen

PEPP 5766 (Context B340).

Fragment preserving rim and upper wall. 

Body sooted reddish brown to dark dusky red, with highly glossy red slip on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Preserved portion too small to allow observation.

Use alteration: Substantially sooted.

D. r. n.a; pr. ht. 1.4.

PEPP 5766 Profile Drawing

PEPP 5766 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

[4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4A2. Lower wall and base turned]

[4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[4B2. Floor compressed]

[4B3: Grooves cut in wall and floor (optional)]

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12-13

 

Nature of Use

Sooting on sole specimen in assemblage indicates that examples of this form sometimes employed for cooking.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.2 Form 3

Hayes Form 33 plate.

 

General Information

Plate with short flanged rim with rounded or flattened tip, low or very low convex wall at moderate angle, large-diameter, small ring foot, and margined floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameter 22-36 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 200/230-260/270.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 55-56; Atlante I, 54-55; Lund 1995, 485; Serrano Ramos 2005, 237.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/005.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 35-40.

 

Specimen

PEPP 7001 (Context A033).

Fragment preserving portion of rim flange and juncture with wall. 

Red (10R 6/8) body, with highly glossy slip of same color on all preserved surfaces. 

Micromorphology: All preserved surfaces smooth. 

Use alteration: Slip abraded away at top and bottom of tip of flange, though not on outer face of flange. 

D. r. 35-40; pr. ht. 0.7. 

PEPP 7001 Profile Drawing

PEPP 7001 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank partially dried

[4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position]

[4A2. Lower wall and base turned]

[4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position]

[4B2. Floor compressed]

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.2 Form 4

Ostia I Fig. 30 dish.

 

General Information

Dish with short flanged rim with rounded tip and convex upper/middle wall rising at moderate angle.  Lower wall and base not attested. Slip on rim and both surfaces upper/middle wall.  

Size: Diameter rim 37 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 200-250 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Atlante I, 56-57.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/008.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 37.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6962 (Context B186).

Two joining fragments preserving portion of rim and upper wall.  Groove on upper surface of rim flange near tip. 

Red (2YR 5.2/8) body, with highly glossy light red/red (1YR 5.5/8?) slip on all preserved surfaces.

Micromorphology: Exterior: Medium facets on underside of rim flange, wall too damaged to permit observation; interior: medium facets on wall.

Use alteration: Slip heavily abraded (probably during use) on interior surface and upper surface of rim flange.  Exterior surface of wall heavily chipped. 

D. r. 37; pr. ht. 2.0.

PEPP 6962 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6962 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank or vessel thrown on wheel

[Other possible operations: partial drying of blank; remounting of blank on wheel in inverted position and turning of wall and base; remounting of blank on wheel in right-side-up position and compressing of floor]

3. Groove cut in upper surface of flange

4. Unslipped vessel dried

5. Unslipped green vessel slipped

6. Slipped green vessel dried

7. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: >/= 8 (</=13?)

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 2.2 Form 5

Unattested flanged bowl or mortarium.

 

General information

Flanged bowl or mortarium with rim with broad, gently downcurved flange.  Form of wall and base not attested.

Assumed function: food preparation – grinding or food serving/consumption.

Size: No information.

Chronology: See below.

Bibliography: None.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/008 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Sole example does not present any intact dimensions.

 

Specimen

PEPP 7004 (Context PEB209).

Fragment preserving rim and outer portion of flange. 

Light red/red (2YR 5.5/8) body, with light red (2YR 5.8/8) slip on all preserved surfaces, highly glossy on upper surface of flange, glossy on lower surface. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: striations on lower surface rim flange; medium facets on upper surface rim flange. 

Use alteration: None noted.

D. r. na.; pr. ht. 1.1.

PEPP 7004 Profile Drawing

PEPP 7004 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank or vessel thrown on wheel

[Other possible operations: partial drying of blank; remounting of blank on wheel in inverted position and turning of wall and base; remounting of blank on wheel in right-side-up position and execution of feather chattering or impressing of rock fragments in floor]

3. Unslipped vessel dried

4. Unslipped green vessel slipped

5. Slipped green vessel dried

6. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: >/= 7 (</=12?)

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

Sole specimen recovered in context deposited ca. 500/525-550 CE and is thus residual.  Manufacture of this form presumably dates to some portion of period during which other forms in African Sigillata 2 were being produced, i.e., ca. 160/180-310 CE.

 

4. African Sigillata 3

In progress.

 

5. African Sigillata 4

The Palatine East assemblage includes 321 fragments belonging to this class that weigh a total of 261 grams and derive from at least 74 vessels.  This class, which has elsewhere been termed sigillata africana C/E and ARS C/E, consists of a set of distinct, fairly thin-walled open forms with sharply-cut morphological features that display affinities with forms in African Sigillata 3 (ARS C).  These have a fine to slightly gritty, highly fired red body that displays sparse, small, white inclusions, and have a matte to slightly glossy red slip either on all surfaces or on the interior surface and the upper portion of the exterior surface.

This class, though recognized by Hayes, was first formally defined only in Atlante I.  No production sites have been identified to date, although its distribution is generally held to point to an origin somewhere in southern Tunisia.  This inference is bolstered by the fact that African Sigillata 4 displays certain points of technical/esthetic similarity with African Sigillata 6 (ARS E), which is also thought to have been produced in southern Tunisia on the basis of its distribution.  These include the execution of multiple bands of chattering on the rim and floor of some vessels and the practice of setting vessels on a layer of straw or some similar kind plant material for drying following forming and prior to slipping, producing impressions on the underside of the base (the latter a feature not present on any of the examples of either African Sigillata 4 or African Sigillata 6 in the Palatine East assemblage).  It seems possible that the two classes were manufactured by the same workshop or workshops or by workshops operating within the same regional technical/esthetic tradition, with African Sigillata 6 perhaps a successor to African Sigillata 4.  The fact that both of the specimens subjected to petrographic analysis contained rare grains of polycrystalline quartz may perhaps indicate broad areas within which this class is likely/unlikely to have originated.

The production of this class can be documented for a period of time extending from the second quarter of the third century CE to the second half of the fourth century CE (ca. 220/230-370/400 CE).

 

Bibliography

Atlante I, 117-118; Lund 1995, 486-488, 492-493, 522; Camilli 1995, 28; Bonifay 2004, 51.

 

Fabric

Fabric name: African Sigillata 4 Fabric.

Hand specimen: Medium hardness, with conchoidal, smooth, or slightly irregular fracture surface and a fine to gritty texture with absent to rare, small white bodies.  Red or less often light red with slightly or glossy slip of same or slightly darker color.

Microscope: Fine to gritty texture with non-carbonate matrix; absent to frequent, small, subround colorless grains (quartz); absent to sparse, small, round, reddish bodies (claystone); sparse to frequent, small, round and irregular reaction rims and white bodies (calcium carbonate); absent to rare, medium, elongated white bodies with hollow center (microfossil?); sparse to frequent, minute to small, rounded and irregular voids.

Montage of African Sigillata 4 Fracture Surface Photomicrographs

 

Petrographic Analysis

Thin sections: N = 2

PEPP 3927 Thin Section 095 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 3927 Thin Section 095 Photomicrograph 40X

PEPP 6288 Thin Section 097 Photomicrograph 20X  

PEPP 6288 Thin Section 097 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Forms Represented in Assemblage:

Form 1: Hayes 45A or 45B large bowl

Form 1.1: Hayes 45A large bowl

Form 1.2: Hayes 45B large bowl

Form 2:  Hayes 46 large bowl

Form 3: Hayes 58A dish

Form 4: Hayes 92 Variant 1 or 2 flanged bowl

Form 4.1: Hayes 92 Variant 1 flanged bowl

Form 4.2: Hayes 92 Variant 2 flanged bowl

Base 1: Hayes 45A, 45B or 46 large bowl

Body 1: Unidentified open form/forms

 

Atlante I assigns the Hayes 45A large bowl exclusively to sigillata africana C, although it does note that this form was probably also manufactured in sigillata africana C/E.

Atlante I notes the manufacture of the Hayes 92 flanged bowl in sigillata africana A, D and E, though not in sigillata africana C/E.  The examples of this form here assigned to African Sigillata 4 clearly belong to this class on the basis of their fabric and slipping.  Aside from some likely residual examples, these fragments were recovered in contexts dating to the late third and fourth century CE, a fact compatible with their identification as African Sigillata 4 and allows a substantial revision to be made to the dating of this form.

Montage of African Sigillata 4 Forms/Profile Drawings

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rim: 87 fragments/74 vessels/459.5 EVE

Base: 43 fragments/41 vessel/290 EVE

Body: 24 fragments

Weight all fragments: 2483 g

 

Manufacturing Techniques

Paste preparation: It is unclear whether the manufacture of this class involved the use of a non-carbonate clay containing a natural component of very fine sand or the addition of very fine sand temper to a fine non-carbonate clay.  The fact that one of the two specimens subjected to petrographic analysis (PEPP 3927/Thin Section 095) displays a possible bimodal distribution of inclusions is compatible with the latter alternative.

Forming: The manufacture of all of the forms and the base attested for this class involved remounting a vessel blank on the wheel in inverted position and shaping its lower wall and base by turning.  The execution of chattering or grooving on the interiors of all of these forms suggests that the vessel blank also was remounted on the wheel in right-side-up position for decoration.  The margined floor of the Form 3 Hayes 58A dish indicates that while in this position and prior to the execution of the decoration the floor was compressed.  The presence of the feather roulette chattering on the interior lower wall and floor of the flanged Form 4, 4.1, and 4.2 Hayes 92 flanged bowl suggests that the remounting of the blank for decoration followed its remounting for the turning of the exterior of the wall and base, as reversing this order in all likelihood would have damaged this complex and delicate pattern.  If this was the approach employed for manufacture of this form, it then seems likely that a similar ordering of these same operations was employed for the production of the other forms that belong to this class.

Drying: As noted above, none of the examples of African Sigillata 4 in the Palatine East assemblage bore grass impressions on the underside of the base, a feature commonly represented as one of the defining features of this class.

Slipping: Where this can be evaluated, examples of the Forms 1, 1.1, 1.2, 2, and Base 1 Hayes 45A, 45B and 46 large bowls and the Forms 4, 4.1, and 4.2 Hayes 92 flanged bowl, and some examples of the Form 3 Hayes 58A dish bear slip on all surfaces, suggesting that they were probably slipped by immersion.  Some examples of the Form 3 Hayes 58A dish, however, bear slip on their interior surface and the upper portion only of their exterior surface, suggesting that they were slipped by having the slip poured inside.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 1

Hayes 45A or 45B large bowl.

 

General Information

Large bowl with rounded rim, sharply everted, straight upper wall, convex middle/lower wall, and low triangular ring foot.  Slip on all surfaces and either bands of chattering (Hayes 45A) or grooves (Hayes 45B) on upper surface of everted upper wall near rim and on floor.  

Size: Rim diameters for Hayes 45A and/or 45B in African Sigillata 4 21-38 cm.

Dates of manufacture: 220/230-320/370 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 62-65; Atlante I, 63-64, 118; Lund 1995, 486-487.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 6 fragments/6 vessels/017.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 28-32, 33-40.

 

Manufacturing Sequence

See African Sigillata Forms 1.1 and 1.2.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 1.1

Hayes 45A large bowl.

 

General Information

Large bowl with sharply everted, straight upper wall with rounded rim, convex middle/lower wall, low triangular ring foot, and bands of chattering on interior upper wall near rim and on floor. Slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameters for Hayes 45A and 45B (including examples in African Sigillata 3) 21-38 cm.  

Dates of manufacture: ca. 220/230-320/370 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 62-65; Atlante I, 63-64; Lund 1995, 486-487.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 4 fragments/4 vessels/010 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 26-30, 28-30, 35-37.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6296 (Context A034).

Fragment preserving portion of rim.  Four rows of chattering decoration on upper surface of rim.  Slip notably smooth and compact.

Red (10R 5/6) body, with glossy light red/red (10R5.5/7) slip on both surfaces. 

D. r. ca. 35-37.

PEPP 6296 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6296 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. [Lower wall and base turned]

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2. Chattering cut in upper surface of everted upper wall [and floor].

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 1.2

Hayes 45B large bowl.

 

General Information

Large bowl with sharply everted, straight upper wall with rounded rim, convex middle/lower wall, low triangular ring foot, and decorative grooves on interior upper wall near rim and on floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameter 24-35 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 250/270-320 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 62-65; Atlante I, 118; Lund 1995, 487.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/005 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 25-27.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6976 (Context A062). 

Fragment preserving portion of rim.  Slight groove on upper surface of rim.

Red (10R 4.5/6) body, with glossy red (10R 4.5/6) slip on all preserved surfaces.   

D. r. ca. 25-27.

PEPP 6976 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6976 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. [Lower wall and base turned]

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2. Grooves cut in upper surface of everted upper wall [and floor].

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 2

Hayes 46 large bowl.

 

General Information

Large bowl with sharply everted, concave upper wall with rounded rim, convex middle/lower wall, low triangular ring foot, and one or more decorative grooves on interior upper wall near rim and on floor.  Slip on all surfaces.  

Size: Rim diameter 20-35 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca. 240/280-310 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 65; Atlante I, 118; Lund 1995, 487-488.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 9 fragments/8 vessels/035 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 20-25, 24-26, 30-35.

 

Specimen

PEPP 4946 (Context A105).

Fragment preserving portion of rim and upper wall.  Upper surface rim has lightly cut decorative groove. 

Red (1YR 5/6) body, with thick glossy red (10R5/6) slip on all preserved surfaces, somewhat thicker and more glossy on interior.

Micromorphology: Exterior: medium facets on wall.

D. r. 30-35.

PEPP 4946 Profile Drawing

PEPP 4946 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Wall [and base turned]

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2. Grooves cut in upper surface of everted upper wall [and floor].

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 3

Hayes 58A dish.

 

General Information

Dish with short flanged rim, gently convex wall rising at moderate angle, tiny ring foot or flat or inset base, and broad, margined floor.  Some examples slipped on all surfaces, some on interior and exterior upper wall.  Usually two decorative grooves on upper surface of rim flange, though sometimes one groove or no grooves.  Some examples have one or more decorative groove on floor.  

Size: Rim diameter 21-40 cm.  

Date of manufacture: ca.230/280-370/400 CE.

Assumed function: food serving/consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 93-96; Atlante I, 118; Lund 1995, 492-493.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rim: 57 fragments/46 vessels/274.5 EVE.

Base: 33 fragments/31 vessels/152.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 37/20-21/4.0.

Rim: 18-21, 19-22, 21-22, 21-23, 22-24, 22-24, 23-25, 23-26, 24, 24-26, 25-26, 26-28, 28-29, 28-29, 29-30, 30, 31-33, 32-33, 32-34, 32-38, 36-37, 36-37, 36-38, 36-39, 37, 37, 40, 40.

Base: 13, 13-16, 14, 18-19, 19, 20-21, 21-23, 21-26, 29-40.

Height: 4.0.

 

Specimen

PEPP 3927, PEPP 6291 (Context A105). 

Three fragments, two joining, preserving portion of rim, wall, and outer portion of floor.  Small decorative groove on upper surface of rim. 

Red (10R 5/7) body, with thick, slightly glossy red (10R 5/8) slip on all preserved surfaces.  Miniature ring foot.

D r. 37; d. bs. 20-21; ht. 4.0.

PEPP 3927 Profile Drawing

PEPP 3927 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 3927 Thin Section 095 Photomicrograph 20X

PEPP 3927 Thin Section 095 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

4A1. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

4A2. Wall and base turned

4B1. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

4B2. Floor compressed

4B3. Grooves cut in rim flange and/or floor (optional)

5. Unslipped vessel dried

6. Unslipped green vessel slipped

7. Slipped green vessel dried

8. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12-13

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 4

Hayes 92 Variant 1 or 2 flanged bowl.

 

General Information:

Small bowl with steep convex wall, short, down-turned rim flange with raised lip, tiny ring foot or groove base, and feather roulette on interior lower wall and floor (Hayes 92).  Slipped on all surfaces.  Two variants recognized according to treatment of lower wall and base - one with turning facets on exterior lower wall and groove base (Form 4.1), one with smooth exterior wall and tiny ring foot (Form 4.2).  Fragments for which assignment could not be made to one variant of the other assigned to Form 2.

Size: Rim diameter 13-16 cm.

Date of manufacture: 390/440 - 500/520 CE suggested, but see below.

Assumed function: food consumption.

Bibliography: Hayes 1972, 145; Atlante I, 122; Lund 1995, 522.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 7 fragments/6 vessels/082.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim: 15, 16, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23.

 

Manufacturing Sequence

See African Sigillata Form 4.1 and 4.2.

 

Nature of Use

See African Sigillata Form 4.1 and 4.2.

 

Chronology

Date range suggested for the Hayes 92 by Lund, and before him Hayes 1972 and Atlante I (390/440-500/520 CE) were based on slender and imprecise evidence.  The evidence for this form (including both variants) from the Palatine East demonstrates that it was manufactured considerably earlier than this, most likely during the period ca. 270/290-330/360 CE, with the ending date perhaps even somewhat later than this.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 4.1

Hayes 92 Variant 1 flanged bowl.

 

General Information

Small bowl with convex wall, short, down-turned rim flange with raised lip, groove base, and feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall and floor.  Slipped on all surfaces.   This variant of Hayes 92 characterized by groove base and turning facets on exterior lower wall.

Date of manufacture: ca. 270/290-330/360 CE.  (See African Sigillata 4 Form 4.)

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 2 fragments/2 vessels/020 EVE.

Bases: 2 fragments/2 vessels/042.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 16/5/4.1.

Rim: 16.

Base: 5, 6-7.

Height: 4.1.

 

Specimen

PEPP 3930 (Context A105).

Fragment that preserves entire profile except for center of floor and tip of flange; two non-joining fragments of rim and upper wall.  Base defined by roughly cut groove.  Lightly cut feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall/floor.

Light red (10R 6/6) body, with slightly redder (10R 4.5/8) slip on all surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: gouges on upper wall immediately below rim flange; light faceting on central and lower wall; possible drag marks on underside of base.

Use alteration: No visible abrasion of slip on feather roulette chattering.

D. r. ca. 16; d. bs. 5; ht. 4.1.

Weight: Fragments represent ca. 35% of vessel and weighs 54 g.  Complete vessel would thus have weighed ca. 150 g.

PEPP 3930 Profile Drawing

PEPP 3930 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

5. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

6. Wall and base turned

7. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

8. Feather roulette chattering cut in lower wall and floor

9. Unslipped vessel dried

10. Unslipped green vessel slipped

11. Slipped green vessel dried

12. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 12

Note: Operations 5-7 placed before Operations 8-9 due to fact that reversing this order would very probably damage the complex and delicate feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall and floor.

 

Nature of Use

Absence of visible abrasion of slip on feather roulette chattering on floor indicates that if used for grinding/pulping of foodstuffs this was not a nature to cause damage of this kind.

 

Chronology

See African Sigillata Form 4.

 

African Sigillata 4 Form 4.2

Hayes 92 Variant 2 flanged bowl.

 

General Information:

Small bowl with convex wall, short, down-turned rim flange with raised lip, groove base, and feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall and floor.  Slipped on all surfaces.  This variant of Hayes 92 characterized by tiny ring foot and absence of turning facets on exterior lower wall.

Date of manufacture: ca. 270/290-330/360 CE. (See African Sigillata 4 Form 4.)

 

Representation in Assemblage

Rims: 1 fragment/1 vessel/015 EVE.

Bases: 4 fragments/4 vessels/077.5 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Rim/base/height: 15.5/6/5.4.

Rim: 15.5.

Base: 6, 7, 8.

Height: 5.4.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6288 (Context A105).

Three joining fragments that preserve entire vessel profile except for center of floor; one non-joining fragment of rim and upper wall.  Feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall/floor.

Red (10R 5.5/6) body, with red (10R 4.5/6) slip on all surfaces. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Drag marks on underside of base. 

Use alteration: No visible abrasion of slip on feather roulette chattering.  Slip partially worn away on underside of foot. 

D. r. ca. 15.5; d. bs. 6; ht. 5.4.

PEPP 6288 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6288 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

PEPP 6288 Thin Section 097 Photomicrograph 20X  

PEPP 6288 Thin Section 097 Photomicrograph 40X

 

Manufacturing Sequence

1A. Paste prepared

1B. Slip prepared

2. Blank thrown on wheel

3. Blank removed from wheel and partially dried

5. Blank remounted on wheel in inverted position

6. Wall and base turned.

7. Wall smoothed

8. Blank remounted on wheel in right-side-up position

9. Feather roulette chattering cut in lower wall and floor

10. Unslipped vessel dried

11. Unslipped green vessel slipped

12. Slipped green vessel dried

13. Slipped green vessel fired

Number of operations: 13

Note: Operations 5-7 placed before Operations 8-9 due to fact that reversing this order would very probably damage the complex and delicate feather roulette chattering on interior lower wall and floor.

 

Nature of Use

Absence of visible abrasion of slip on feather roulette chattering on floor indicates that if used for grinding/pulping of foodstuffs this was not a nature to cause damage of this kind.

 

Chronology

See African Sigillata Form 4.

 

African Sigillata 4 Base 1

Hayes 45A, 45B, or 46 large bowl.

 

General Information

Base from large open form with low, triangular ring foot, and medium- or large-diameter, flat floor with decorative grooves.  Probably from Hayes 45A, 45b, or 46 (African Sigillata 4 Forms 1.1, 1.2, and 2, respectively).

 

Representation in Assemblage

Bases: 9 fragments/8 vessels/035 EVE.

 

Dimensions

Base: 9, 9, 11, 12-16, 16-21.

 

Specimen

PEPP 6297 (A037).

Fragment preserving lower wall, foot, and all of floor except center.  Two grooves on floor.

Red (10R 5/6.5) body with light red/red (10R 5.5/6) slip on both surfaces, glossy on interior, matte on exterior. 

Micromorphology: Exterior: Drag marks on underside of base.

Use alteration: Slip abraded on angle of foot; a few faint scratches on floor. 

D.bs. 16-21; pr ht. ca. 0.9.

PEPP 6297 Profile Drawing

PEPP 6297 Fracture Surface Photomicrograph

 

Manufacturing Sequence

See African Sigillata Forms 1.1, 1.2, and 2.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new EVIDENCE.

 

African Sigillata 4 Body 1

Unidentifieed open form/forms.

 

Representation in Assemblage

Body: 186 fragments.

 

Nature of Use

No evidence.

 

Chronology

No new evidence.

 

6. African Sigillata 5

In queue.

   

7. African Sigillata 6

In queue.

    

8. African Sigillata 7

In queue.

 

9. African Sigillata 8

In queue.

 

10. List of Sources Cited

Abbreviations:

Atlante I: Carandini, A. ed. Atlante delle forme ceramiche I. Ceramica fine romana nel bacino mediterraneo (medio e tardo impero). Rome: Istituto della Enciclopeida Italiana.

Sources:

Ben Moussa, M. 2007. La production de sigillées africaines. Recherches d’histoire et d’archeologie en Tunisie septentrionale et centrale. Instrumenta 23. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.

Bonifay, M. 2004. Etudes sur la céramique romaine tardive d'Afrique. British Archaeological Reports - International Series 1301.

Camilli, A. 1995. "Terra sigillata africana, ceramica africana da cucina." in Balzano, M. and Camilli, A., eds. 1995. Ceramica romana: guida allo studio, vol. II. Rome: Gruppo Archeologico Romano, 21-61.

Hayes, J. 1972. Late Roman Pottery. London: The British School at Rome.

Lund, J. 1995. “Hellenistic, Roman and late Roman fine wares from the Segermes Valley – forms and chronology.” In Dietz, S., Ladjimi SebaÏ, L., and Ben Hassen, H. eds. 1995. African Proconsularis: Regional Surveys in the Segermes Valley of Northern Tunisia. vol. 2.  Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 449-629.

Mackensen, M. and Schneider, G. 2002. "Production centres of African red slip ware (3rd - 7th c.) in northern and central Tunisia: archaeological provenance and reference groups based on chemical analysis." Journal of Roman Archaeology 15.1: 120-158.

Mackensen, M. and Schneider, G. 2006. "Production centres of African red slip ware (2nd - 3rd c.) in northern and central Tunisia: archaeological provenance and reference groups base on chemical analysis." Journal of Roman Archaeology 19.1: 163-190.

Serrano Ramos, E. 2005. “Cerámicas africanas.” in Roca Roumens, M. and Fernández García, I. eds. 2005. Introducción al estudio de la cerámica romana: una breve guía de referencia. Monográfico no 1 de CVDAS. Málaga: Universidad de Málaga, 225-303.